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I think I should place here some sort of a general explanation of what is supposed to be a Witch or should I say, what has been placed into the minds of the most of us throughout the world by our religions, teachers, parents and our literature. Not many people have had the sense to look into the real reasons for the persecutions of different people, the mavericks, people who wanted to be just an individual, perhaps study natures natural ways, or just be away from the crowd.

A Witch is also the spelling of a flat-fish similar to a Dover sole, [Glyptocephalus cynoglossus].

Different spelling of Witch is Wych, but this latter spelling is generally one of trees with pliant branches, a twiggy growth on trees, or trees with. Both spellings can be used.

A witch is also known as a malevolent or ugly old woman; or a fascinating woman, or bewitching woman.

For many people throughout the world the name witch conjures up all sorts of bad, evil things into the mind. A sorceress, a woman who was supposed to have dealings with the Devil and evil Spirits. Nothing could be further from the truth. The name witch came from and was conjured up by the evil ones in the religions, and by the way in some bibles they have placed this word into the text The Witch of Endor, this is another blatant lie as there is not a word in Judaism/Hebrew for Witch, it should say the Wise Woman of Endor, a person who knew the old ways and helped others with the old tried and tested herbal medicines.

Witchcraft the alleged use of magic, sorcery. Witch-doctor a sorcerer of the tribal, primitive people.

Witch-hunt is a search for and the persecution of people with unpopular or unorthodox views, different political views. Many good people throughout the middle ages were killed [Murdered by those in the Christian faith] by priests, vicars, and intellectuals because a person had a different way of looking at life and what went on around them. These good people were vilified because the church wanted keep control of the minds and pockets [monies] of their congregations. They feared people who had more knowledge of worldly ways than they did. Most who were killed had knowledge of nature and the natural world that was passed down to them over the centuries. Knowledge of herbs and medicines, healing by laying on of hands, counselling, [caring about the person, listening to their troubles], this got in the way of confessions in the churches, who thought only they had the right of taking on peoples woes and forgiving them. This is why the churches and the intellectuals kept the vast majority of people ignorant and were against ordinary people learning to read and write. This is still going on in different parts of the world to this day. Keeping women in religions ignorant and not being educated so they cannot make for themselves a judgement,

The church devised a wicked plan to put around that the old wizened women of the times were in contact with the Devil, and had made a pact with Old Nick himself, demons and all evil spirits. Most were said to have cast evil spells on the innocent, because of them being in league with the Devil, and they dealt in black magic. These wise old women were supposed to have familiars [an attendant spirit or demon] around them in the form of cats, dogs, frogs, toads, weasels, etc. Many were accused of killing of livestock, the failing of crops, the reason for a person having fits, a woman neighbour being barren, or their husbands being impotent.

All that a witch is, is a person who tries to help others by linking into the earths and natures natural energies. Remember, that force can be used for good and evil; yet because a witch is different, people who do not take the time to understand pick out the evil. If you ask any witch, they will tell you it is most important for them to help and heal the ills of people and not to cast evil spells onto anyone.

There are black witches and white witches, and I think the black witches at this time are unfortunately in a few of the churches in Africa, especially in Nigeria [black being EVIL not being the colour of the skin]






Child Witches in Africa

Extracts from Guardian News and Media

Sunday 9th December 2007

Even today the Christian churches are causing chaos in Nigeria in the Niger Delta in the South West of Africa especially in the Akwa Iboma province. Children as young as 3 months old and upwards are being abandoned by their families and ostracised by their communities after being accused of being a witch. All because of the Christian Evangelical Pastors of the region and it is getting worse because of a film End of the Wicked and others made by the Christian Pentecostal church preacher Mrs Helen Ukpabio now one of the richest people in Nigeria, now owning the Christian Liberty church and Liberty Films, She is still making a lot of disgusting evil films of alleged possessed witch children who do harm to their communities. The trouble is the ignorant poorly educated people believe the films are a genuine portrayal of witches, which is exploited by the many churches to get money out of the poor to exorcise the devils.

The children can be cleared of the stigma of being a witch by giving money to the Pastors and preachers. [that says everything about the situation. The pastors are feeding on the fear of not just the poor and uneducated, but people from the middle classes and the elite]. The church congregations are being told there are witches all around them ready to bring evil into their lives. The Evangelical Christian Pastors are helping to create a terrible new campaign of violence against young Nigerians to fill the coffers of their churches and the pockets of the preachers themselves. There is no control over these Pastors.

Some children have had nails driven into their heads, others poisoned, buried alive, slashed with machetes, more beaten until welts become swollen scars on their small backs, shoulders and arms. One young girl had very hot water and soda poured over her head and body after a prophet of the church accused her of being a witch and killing one of her younger brothers. Another 13 year old girl was bound head to foot and extremely tightly around the ankles and left to die in the bush. When she was found, the ropes had eaten into her flesh and taken all the flesh off her ankles, she will be marked for life. Her father is being charged.

See the video




On TV the 12th of November 2008 Channel Four programme Dispatches brought our attention to the plight of the children in Akwa Iboma province province of Nigeria, where an English volunteer, 29 year old Gary Foxcroft was trying to do his best at stopping the children being stigmatised by the Preachers and Pastors of the Christian Pentecostal churches in this down trodden, yet oil rich country.

We were shown traumatised children from the ages of 3 months old being accused of being witches. The mother, who was scared they might be killed by the villagers had placed her two daughters of 3 months old and 5 years old at this place of refuge.

At the helping care community Gary Foxcroft has Nigerian volunteers and teachers helping 150 young boys and girls who are being helped to lead a normal life and to get away from their indoctrination of believing they are all witches who have been possessed by the devil.

One young girl Uma Eke who is about 8 had had a nail driven 3 inches into her skull and it had ruined her brain and now that poor unfortunate girl was mentally disabled.

Another girl was burned with acid and buried alive, but survived and managed to get to the Stepping Stones place of safety.

Another young girl had been placed on a fire by her own Christian father because he was told she was a witch.

There are at least 5 to 6 young children each day being accused of witchcraft by the Christian Pastors and preachers of these Christian Churches.

We saw about six very frightened children who were locked up by another Christian Pastor being accused and abused.

On the Dispatches programme there was a smug Christian Bishop who bragged at killing 110 witches. After getting money he was shown dropping a dark liquid into the eyes of a young child so he could block the devil and see better spiritually, this he informed us had to be done over a period of time. He said he had had money from 400,000 by healing them.

On the outside of some churches, it was seen they had chains around posts, which were around the legs of two very scared boys who had been accused of witchcraft.

Another child had their little arm broken by the beatings they took, and had the bone sticking out from his arm when found may days later.

Gary told of hearing about children being thrown off bridges into rivers after being bound, he also told of children being hacked to death and chopped up with a machete.

There was an incident in the programme where a man from the village with his machete actually came up to the crew and the volunteers who were trying to get the mother and the village to accept the young 5 year old girl back into the community. Menacingly he would have none of it and said if she was left there now, tonight he would kill her as she was a witch.

The organisation that Gary Foxcroft is involved with is called Stepping Stones, Nigeria. If you want to know what they do and want to help these unfortunate children or vulnerable children in this country, Channel 4 has placed an information line on 0845 6041 444 and to this day we are hearing about some unfortunate children in some African communities in ENGLAND who have done some terrible things to children and the vulnerable, because of their evil, sadistic beliefs being acted on under the broad blanket of Christianity. {this was publicised at the time in the media]


Stepping Stones work with the charity CRARN

For the information about helping children in the Niger delta,

This is their web site


phone number 0845 3138 391 from 9am- 5pm Monday to Friday.

A follow up programme was on TV the 23th of November 2009 Channel Four programme Dispatches




THIS is also a TRUE FACT

KENYA   21 MAY 2008

Eleven elderly people accused of being witches have been burned to death by a mob in the west of Kenya, police say. A security operation has been launched to hunt down villagers suspected of killing them in Kisii District. The BBC's Muliro Telewa in the region says the gang had a list of the victims and picked them out individually. The area has witnessed similar attacks in the past when people suspected of engaging in witchcraft have been killed or ostracised. But our reporter says that this is a surprisingly large number of people to be attacked at the same time. In the Witches press conference meeting, Anthony Kibunguchy, the provincial police officer, told the BBC that the eight women and three men were all aged between 80 and 96 years old. The mob dragged them out of their houses and burned them individually and then set their homes alight, our correspondent says.
Residents have been ambivalent about condemning the attacks because belief in witchcraft is widespread in the area, he says. But one local official Mwangi Ngunyi spoke out against the murders. People must not take the law into their own hands simply because they suspect someone, he told AFP news agency. Villagers told reporters that they had evidence that the victims were Witches. They say they found an exercise book at a local primary school that contained the minutes of a witches meeting which detailed who was going to be bewitched next.

The victims families have gone into hiding, fearing for their lives.



The above video is about Christianity at its best in Kenya. Five people from the Kenyan Village of Kisii Nyamataro were slowly burned alive because they were suspected of witchcraft. They did not acknowledge Jesus Christ as their God. Five young people, men and women, were beaten with sticks and set on fire to slowly roast while other villages, this included the christian priests who also watched the grotesque spectacle. Religion always brings out the best in people. BE WARNED IT IS VERY GRAPHIC. I have placed a still photograph is at the end if you do not want to watch the video. BUT BE WARNED IT IS NOT AT ALL NICE, I FEEL THIS EVIL MUST BE SHOWN. Only for over 18+






THIS is also FACT

'Witch' Burned Alive in Papua New Guinea

Posted Jan 7, 09 4:00 PM CST in World Source: Daily Telegraph (UK)

Source: Associated Press Photo 

(Newser) – A young woman accused of witchcraft was doused with gasoline and burned to death on a pyre of car tyres in Papua New Guinea, reports the Telegraph. The girl, aged between 16 and 21, was accused of spreading AIDS to one of her murderers in an extra-marital affair. Black magic has seen resurgence as the Pacific island nation grapples with a HIV epidemic.

“The girl was stripped naked and could not shout for assistance or resist, as she was tightly strapped and her mouth gagged,” says a 21-year-old witness. Adds the region’s police chief, “I don’t know the right words to describe it, but it’s barbaric. Can you find the best words to describe such acts that are rampant here?”


By Saeed Ahmed
Thursday January 8, 2009.

(CNN) -- A woman in rural Papua New Guinea was bound and gagged, tied to a log and set ablaze on a pile of tires this week, possibly because villagers suspected her of being a witch, police said Thursday.

Her death adds to a growing list of men and women who have been accused of sorcery and then tortured or killed in the South Pacific island nation, where traditional beliefs hold sway in many regions.

The victims are often scapegoats for someone else's unexplained death, and bands of tribesmen collude to mete out justice to them for their supposed magical powers, police said.

"We have had difficulties in a number of previous incidents convincing people to come forward with information," said Simon Kauba, assistant commissioner of police and commander of the Highlands region, where the killing occurred.

"We are trying to persuade them to help. Somebody lost their mother or daughter or sister Tuesday morning."

Early Tuesday, a group of people dragged the woman, believed to be in her late teens to early 20s, to a dumping ground outside the city of Mount Hagen. They stripped her naked, bound her hands and legs, stuffed a cloth in her mouth, tied her to a log and set her on fire, Kauba said.

"When the people living nearby went to the dump site to investigate what caused the fire, they found a human being burning in the flames," he said. "It was ugly."

The country's Post-Courier newspaper reported Thursday that more than 50 people were killed in two Highlands provinces last year for allegedly practicing sorcery.

In a well-publicized case last year, a pregnant woman gave birth to a baby girl while struggling to free herself from a tree. Villagers had dragged the woman from her house and hung her from the tree, accusing her of sorcery after her neighbour suddenly died.

She and the baby survived, according to media reports.

The killing of witches, or sangumas, is not a new phenomenon in rural areas of the country.

Emory University anthropology professor Bruce Knauft, who lived in a village in the western province of Papua New Guinea in the early 1980s, traced family histories for 42 years and found that one in three adult deaths were homicides -- "the bulk of these being collective killings of suspected sorcerers," he wrote in his book, "From Primitive to Postcolonial in Melanesia and Anthropology."

In recent years, as AIDS has taken a toll in the nation of 6.7 million people, villagers have blamed suspected witches -- and not the virus -- for the deaths.

According to the United Nations, Papua New Guinea accounts for 90 percent of the Pacific region's HIV cases and is one of four Asia-Pacific countries with an epidemic.

"We've had a number of cases where people were killed because they were accused of spreading HIV or AIDS," Kauba said.

While there is plenty of speculation why Tuesday's victim was killed, police said they are focused more on who committed the crime.

"If it is phobias about alleged HIV/AIDS or claims of a sexual affair, we must urge the police and judiciary to throw the book at the offenders," the Post-Courier wrote in an editorial.

"There are remedies far, far better than to torture and immolate a young woman before she can be judged by a lawful system.


The Post Courier newspaper editorial condemned the killing as "yet one more example of hysteria and superstition running rampant in parts of our country".

"How many of our young are afraid to go home because of these sorcery beliefs and vengeance practices? Those who say she got primitive justice should pause to think, it could be you next on that truckload of burning tyres," it said.

Most reports of women being tortured and killed after being accused of witchcraft in PNG in recent years have been linked to the growing death toll on the island from Aids.

Less than a hundred years ago some tribes in the rugged South Pacific island nation off the north-eastern tip of Australia had never had contact with the outside world.







Salem Witch trials




Elizabethan Witchcraft and Witches      Elizabethan Superstitions

The Elizabethan Period - Elizabethan Witchcraft and Witches
The Elizabethan Period and the intellectual era of the Renaissance introduced English persecution of Elizabethan Witches and Witchcraft. Ironically, this period of great learning brought with it a renewed belief in the supernatural including a belief in the powers of witchcraft, witches and witch hunts! Ironically the introduction of the printing press, one of the greatest tools in increasing knowledge and learning was responsible! Johannes Gutenberg introduced the printing press c1456. The first printed books were bibles or contained religious themes. Unfortunately many of these books promoted ideas about witches and witchcraft which in turn led to the intensified witch hunts of the 15th and 16th centuries! Additional new renaissance thinking and books about Astrology, Alchemy and Magic increased the interest in witchcraft, witches and witch hunts even further. The 1562 Elizabethan Witchcraft Act was passed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. It was an act 'agaynst Conjuracions Inchauntmentes and Witchecraftes'.

The Elizabethan Belief in Witches
During the Elizabethan era people blamed unexplainable events as the work of witches. There were frequent outbreaks of the deadly Black Death (Bubonic Plague) for which there was no cure. The fear and anger about this terrible disease had to be directed at someone - witches were the obvious target. When people died from terrible diseases, when animals died, when there was a bad harvest, when houses were burnt down in fires even when foods curdled - witches were the obvious targets. During the Elizabethan era there was limited medical knowledge or facilities and there was no form of insurance. Such events as those described above were devastating and there was no means of minimising their terrible effects on the lives of Elizabethans - someone had to be blamed - witches were the obvious targets.

Who were the people accused of being Elizabethan Witches?
Women were those most often accused of being witches! There were 270 Elizabethan witch trials of 247 were women and only 23 were men! Those accused of witchcraft were generally:

Old, Poor, Unprotected, Single women or widows (many kept pets for company - their familiars)

More details on this link below




The Survey of Scottish Witchcraft 1563-1736
By Julian Goodare, Lauren Martin, Joyce Miller and Louise Yeoman
January 2003

More details on this link below


This is an electronic resource for the history of witchcraft and witch-hunting in Scotland. It is in two parts: an interactive database, and supporting web pages.

The database contains all people known to have been accused of witchcraft in early modern Scotland--nearly 4,000 of them. There is information on where and when they were accused, how they were tried, what their fate was, and on a wide range of themes relating to social and cultural history. You can use the database to conduct all sorts of searches. For instance, you can find all known cases involving neighbourhood quarrels, or demonic possession, or fairies. You can find all the male or female witches. You can create graphs or maps showing how witchcraft cases were distributed; this is important because prosecutions tended to come in short bursts in particular localities.

There is also supporting material. An 'Introduction to Scottish witchcraft' explains some of the findings from the database and puts them in context. The 'Further Reading' section is also important; the database won't tell you everything on its own. However, it will tell you some things that you could find out in no other way. We hope you find it a useful tool. All this should help you think about the history of witchcraft and what it means to us today.



Here are some details of witches written by Angus Council of happenings in Angus, Scotland.

Burn the Witch:

The Forfar Witch Hunts of the 1660’s

Available to read here are some of the original witch confessions

In 1563 the newly created Church of Scotland made it illegal to either be a witch or to consult a witch in an attempt to stamp out pagan practices. This Act of Parliament was not abandoned until 1736. In between 1563 and 1736 is known from documentary evidence that at least 1,500 people were executed for the crime of being a witch.

More details on this link below

Their web site http://anguscalling.co.uk/history/features/forfarwitches.htm





Wizards & Witches
New Age Paganism & Earth Worship

Witches & Wizards Messages

This is a joyous, religion, combining nature with everyday life in the quest for balance.
Peace of mind is needed by us all, and what better way to find it than by Enjoying a full Life...
Relax, Rejoice and Celebrate your Precious Mortality, Our Blessed and Worthy Gender.


More details on this link below




The information below was taken from Llewellyn's Witches' Calendar 1999

The word WITCH has many connotations. It is a label stuffed full of stereotypes and misconceptions. Those of us living out of the broom closet have had many opportunities to experience these misconceptions firsthand.

At worst these misconceptions are based on fear and ignorance. At best they are rooted in stereotypes and bad made-for-TV movies. Though I have been openly Pagan for the past six years, I have been fortunate thus far to escape the nastier side of religious intolerance. I have taught open classes, led open circles, done Pagan radio shows on commercial radio stations, and written Pagan articles credited with my real name. I have had ample opportunity to encounter all flavours and shades of misconceptions.

The single most obvious misconception is that there is a connection between Satanism and Paganism or Wicca. The confusion is understandable since Satanists often call themselves Witches. However, Witches are not Satanist. When someone calls me a Satanist I have a simple response. I don't believe in Satan, therefore I am clearly not a Satanist.

Most of the other misconceptions I have encountered fall into several categories. The first is that there is no such thing as a practicing Witch -- that the only Witches you ever see are fictional media Witches. This misconception is followed closely by the idea that there are good Witches and bad Witches who practice "White" and "Black" magic respectively. The next most common misconception is that Witches are more powerful than "normal" people. Other misconceptions involve the way a Witch is supposed to look or behave.

The imaginary Witch who can twitch her nose and make dirty dishes disappear is, alas, complete television fiction. Fortunately, Witches who suck the life out of children or exact bloody revenge for some social slight are also B-grade fiction. Most distressing is the complete lack of brains exhibited by these media "Witches." The pettiness of their concerns is matched only by the short-sightedness of their methods. The less people believe in these caricatures the better off we all are. How harmful are these stereotypes? Do these portrayals affect popular opinion or merely reflect it? As a practicing Witch and mom, my concerns are dictated by my scope of influence. I'm not the head of a major production studio. I can't prevent Hollywood from creating stupid, fictional Witches. Children seem perfectly able to separate fictional cartoon witchcraft from what Mom does on the Full Moons.

The whole idea of good Witches with white magic and bad Witches with black magic is a huge misconception, just like the myth of the good guys with white hats and the bad guys with the black hats. I have yet to meet anyone who was totally aligned with good or evil. It has been so long since I thought of witchcraft in those black-and-white terms that the last time somebody asked me if I was a good Witch I said, "Yes, I am. If I was bad at being a Witch after all these years why would I bother with it?" There are good and bad Witches just like there are good and bad teachers, bookkeepers, cooks, plumbers, and doctors.

The simplest misconception is the idea that Witches are more powerful than they really are, especially when it comes to money and gambling. However, if I was any good at picking lucky Lotto numbers I would have done it for myself a long time ago.

Misconceptions also abound around love spells. Love is a magical phenomenon, no doubt about it. Goddess help you when it catches you by surprise. It's not a pretty sight. However, love spells are widely recognized as being foolish and highly unethical. Whether a love spell would work or not is irrelevant. Why would anyone in their right mind want it to work? Who wants a lover who is only there because he or she was be-spelled? I have a Pagan friend who was accused of casting spells to ensnare the object of her affections. She was highly offended. It is more than a little insulting when your beloved accuses you of casting a spell to make him or her fall in love with you, as though your appearance and personality were so dreadful that you had to resort to magical coercion to find a mate.

Sadly, the most consistent misconceptions I personally have encountered have come from some other Witches who were concerned about my "right" to call myself a Witch. It's the One Right Way syndrome: the idea that only a Witch initiated and trained by the right person in the right way is a real Witch. My feeling is that witchy is as witchy does.

Finally, there is a whole conglomeration of misconceptions about the way a Witch is supposed to look. The popular image of a toothless, grinning hag with warts on the end of her nose and stringy hair has largely been replaced by stunning young vixens dressed all in black with intense gazes. Men can be Witches, as can perky blondes in blue jeans, harried parents of toddlers, bank tellers, salespeople, programmers, lawyers, or waitresses.

When I call myself a Witch I always get a strong reaction (as opposed to when I call myself a bookkeeper). The most common response is curiosity. The next most common is "Oh, so is my friend, cousin, co-worker, etc." Occasionally people couldn't care less, and even more rarely do people react with fear or prejudice. When I describe witchcraft as I practice it I am very open because I am so wary of adding to the giant steaming pile of misconceptions that already exists. I emphasize the similarities between witchcraft and other paths, as well as making it very clear what witchcraft is not.

Witchcraft is not Satanism, it is not a quick path to riches and glory, and it is not something only special people can do. Witchcraft is exactly what each Witch makes it to be. It is the craft of the Witch. It is a dynamic eclectic path with a rich body of lore and (thank the Goddess) no central, controlling priesthood.

We are fortunate to have several excellent books on the market that divest witchcraft of its misconceptions. Among these are "DRAWING DOWN THE MOON" by: Margot Adler and "THE TRUTH ABOUT WITCHCRAFT TODAY" by: Scott Cunningham.

We are also luck to be living in a fairly enlightened age. Witch burnings, though a thing of the past, are still rather fresh in the Pagan memory. We still have a long way to go. There are many Witches who are terrified of being discovered for fear of losing their jobs, their homes, or their children. This is why I encourage my students to be as open about their practice as they can. Every truthful account of witchcraft does a little bit more to drive back the misconceptions that endanger us all. As a practicing Witch you are your own best example of real witchcraft. So if you are ever confronted by misconceptions, take a deep breath, ground and centre, and whenever possible enlighten and educate. You will be paving the way to a time when all Witches can dance sky-clad and fearless under the light of the luminous Full Moon.

The information above was taken from Llewellyn's Witches' Calendar 1999

For a lot more information about witches go to




Accused of Witchcraft


Salem Witch Trials


Salem Witch Trial, artist's reconstruction. Peabody Essex Museum

Cotton Mather

(1663-1728) A key player in the Salem Witch Hunts in Massachusetts, Mather started out his career as a Boston-based minister. He became involved in the larger atrocity when he was called upon to investigate the strange behavior of four children. Mather concluded that the children’s’ ailment -- complaining of sudden pains and screaming in unison -- was the result of witchcraft. He fingered an Irish servant named Mary Glover, who was subsequently searched, interrogated and hanged in 1688. Before she died, Glover revealed (probably under the pain of torture) the names of several "accomplices," who were diligently sought out and suitably punished. Mather was unrelenting in his persecution of presumed witches. In the case of George Burroughs, Mather intervened when a sympathetic crowd called for the poor man’s release from the gallows. Burroughs had successfully recited the Lord’s Prayer, something a true witch was apparently incapable of doing. Mather argued that Burroughs still needed to die since a jury had already convicted him. Mather went on to author over four hundred books and pamphlets (including Memorable Providences that describes the witch trials), all extolling the virtues of Puritan belief. Later in his life, he began to rethink some of his extreme stances during the witch trials, especially when so many of the victims began to recant their forced confessions.

BRADBURY, Mary Perkins
She was tried for witchcraft in Salisbury, MA; convicted, but not executed. The papers pertaining to the case show the high estimation in which she was held.

Think there are no women accused of witchcraft in modern times? Think again. Helen was a simple woman supporting her disabled husband and her 6 children by working full time in a bleach factory and part time as a Spiritualist Medium. Her messages during the Second World War became so accurate that she was arrested and tried as a 'witch' for fear she would reveal the truth about D-Day plans, the Enigma Machine and much more.

GARLICK, Elizabeth Blanchard
As "Goodwife Garlick", Elizabeth was accused of bewitching a woman and causing the death of her child while residing in East Hampton, Long Island. She was, fortunately, acquitted.

GREENSMITH, Rebecca Elson Mudge
Not all "witches" were from Salem, MA. Many were accused and executed in Connecticut and both Rebecca and her husband, Nathaniel Greensmith were hanged in Hartford in 1662.

HOWE, Elizabeth Jackson
One of the women accused and hanged at Salem's famous witch trials. Some of the testimony against Elizabeth is found here.

KNAPP, Elizabeth Warren
Sixteen-year-old Elizabeth was a servant in the house of Rev. Samuel Willard when she became "possessed" in 1671. Rev. Willard left a detailed account of the case.

MARTIN, Susanna North
Accused of witchcraft, Susanna was one of the twenty women and men executed during the hysteria that gripped Salem, MA in 1692.

MARTIN, Susanna North
Another page devoted to Susanna.

NURSE, Rebecca Towne
Rebecca, probably the most famous of the Salem "witches", was one of three sisters accused and imprisoned for withcraft. One of her sisters, Sarah survived. Rebecca and her sister Mary were hanged.

Long before Salem, there were the "Pendle Witches" of Lancashire, England. Alice was one of the seven "witches" executed August 20, 1612. Her crime was bewitching a man to death.

PARSONS, Mary Bliss
A Springfield, Massachusetts woman and wife of a prominent citizen, Mary went to court twice - once as the plaintiff against a woman who had accused her of witchcraft, and secondly as a defendant when she was again accused of witchcraft.

PUTNAM, Ann Carr
Her daughter, Ann Jr. started the Salem witchcraft hysteria. Ann Putnam Jr.'s testimony is here.

In 1664 in the town of Lindheim, Germany, Martha Schuler was arrested, imprisoned, tortured and eventually burned for witchcraft. Her husband, arrested with her, was able to escape.

WILD(E), Sarah
Having a magistrate for a husband did not prevent Sarah from being tried, convicted and executed as one of the Salem witches.

WILD, Sarah
Here is another biography of Sarah Wild written by another descendant of hers, revealing more of Salem's dark history.

WILSON, Sarah Lord
One of the women in Andover, MA who was victimized by the Salem witch hysteria, Sarah and her daughter, Sarah, Jr. were both arrested, imprisoned and forced to "confess" to witchcraft.


Declaration of Regret - Salem Jurors

We whose names are underwritten, being in the year 1692 called to serve as jurors in court at Salem, on trial of many who were by some suspected guilty of doing acts of witchcraft upon the bodies of sundry persons, we confess that we ourselves were not capable to understand, nor able to withstand, the mysterious delusions of the powers of darkness and Prince of the air, but were, for want of knowledge in ourselves and better information from others, prevailed with to take with such evidence against the accused, as, on further consideration and better information, we justly fear was insufficient for the touching the lives of any (Deut. xvii) whereby we fear we have been instrumental, with others, though ignorantly and unwittingly, to bring upon ourselves and this people of the Lord the guilt of innocent blood; which sin the Lord saith in Scripture he would not pardon (2 Kings xxiv.4) - that is, we suppose, in regard to his temporal judgments. We do therefore hereby signify to all in general, and to the surviving sufferers in special, our deep sense of, and sorrow for, our errors in acting on such evidence to the condemning of any person; and do hereby declare, that we justly fear that we were sadly deluded and mistaken - for which we are much disquieted and distressed in our minds, and do therefore humbly beg forgiveness, first of God, for Christ's sake, for this our error, and pray that God would impute the guilt of it to ourselves nor others, and we also pray that we may be considered candidly and aright by the living sufferers, as being then under a strong and general delusion, utterly unacquainted with, and not experienced in, matters of that nature.

We do hereby ask forgiveness of you all, whom we have justly offended, and do declare, according to our present minds, we would none of us do such things again, on such grounds, for the whole world - praying you to accept of this in way of satisfaction for our offense, and that you would bless the inheritance of the Lord, that he may be entreated for the land.


Thomas Fisk, Foreman
William Fisk
John Bacheler
Thomas Fisk
John Dane
Joseph Evelith
Thomas Pearly, Sr.
John Peabody
Thomas Perkins
Samuel Sayer
Andrew Eliot
Henry Herrick, Sr.

To learn more, visit the Salem & Witchcraft Trials site.

To view photos of the memorials of the women and men executed for witchcraft during the Salem trials, visit the Salem Witches Memorial.

The Salem Witchcraft Papers The complete court documents - verbatim transcripts.

Associated Daughters of Early American Witches. This organization searches for and preserves the names of those accused of witchery in that portion of Colonial America now the United States of America. Another purpose is to locate the living female descendants of all witches who were accused in the American colonies prior to published records of same.

Read about earlier witchcraft trials and executions in the Medieval Sourcebook - Witchcraft Documents of the 15th Century

17th Century Colonial New England With special emphasis on the Salem Witch Trials.

Salem Witch Discussion Group E-mail discussion list with information on subscribing.

National Geographic's Salem Witchcraft Hysteria Interesting site which allows you to take a first-person "virtual tour" as a condemned witch.

Bibliography of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and America Huge list of books on the subject.

Joan's Witch Directory A nice source of information with links to other related sites.

A web page with a complete list of all Known Executed Witches.

"Witch City Documentary" Filmmakers, Joe Cultrera and Bob Quinn have put together a film which takes issue with the commercialization of today's Salem, and reminds us that the Salem witchcraft hysteria which resulted in many deaths was a very tragic episode in our nation's history.

The Witching Hours A starting point for research into the European witch trials of the medieval and Renaissance periods.

DiscoverySchool Guest Expert Series - Salem Witch Trials Brought to you by the Discovery channel, teachers, students and their parents now have the opportunity to ask and get answers to questions on the Salem Witch Trials in order to understand more about this frightening time in history.

With minor additions from   http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nwa/witch.html



With minor additions from  http://tracymonger.moonfruit.com/#/witchcraft-act/4532973897


The act of De hæretico comburendo was the first Witchcraft act to be passed in 1401. The start of witchcraft percussions in England was during the reign of Henry VIII with the witchcraft act of 1541/42, against conjurations and wichescraftes and sorcery and enchantmentes. Edward VI brought in the witchcraft act of 1547. Elizabeth I brought in witchcraft acts of 1562/3 and 1580 'agaynst Conjuracions Inchauntmentes and Witchecraftes' and it was the most notorious of all witchcraft acts. Witchcraft only became a crime during the reign of James I (1603-1625), when the law changed to the witchcraft statue of 1604, which brought the witchcraft act in line with the rest of Europe and remained until 1735 when it was repealed and George II brought in the witchcraft act of 1735, practising witchcraft was no longer a hanging offence, but the alleged witch would be punished as a vagrant, con-artist, fined and imprisonment.

An Act to repeal the Witchcraft Act 1735, and to make, in substitution for certain provisions of section four of the Vagrancy Act 1824, express provision for the punishment of persons who fraudulently purport to act as spiritualistic mediums or to exercise powers of telepathy, clairvoyance or other similar powers.

 (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any person who--

 (a) with intent to deceive purports to act as a spiritualistic medium or to exercise any powers of telepathy, clairvoyance or other similar powers, or

(b) in purporting to act as a spiritualistic medium or to exercise such powers as aforesaid, uses any fraudulent device, shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) A person shall not be convicted of an offence under the foregoing subsection unless it is proved that he acted for reward; and for the purposes of this section a person shall be deemed to act for reward if any money is paid, or other valuable thing given, in respect of what he does, whether to him or to any other person.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding four months or to both such fine and such imprisonment, or on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding five hundred pounds or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

(4) No proceedings for an offence under this section shall be brought in England or Wales except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions.

(5) Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall apply to anything done solely for the purpose of entertainment.

·Malleus Maleficarum

Malleus Maleicarum is Latin for ‘The Hammer of Witches’ and was written by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger in 1486 but was published in Germany in 1487. In total there was thirty editions printed from 1486 to 1669 and the English translation was published in London in 1928, 1948, 1974 by Montague Summers. Both Authors were members of the Dominican circle (friars) and inquisitors for the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church banned the book in 1490 but the book still became a handbook for witch-hunts.

The main purpose of the book was to prove that witchcraft did not exist and to direct magistrates how to identify witches and interrogate and convict witches. The book was supposed to examine the existence of witchcraft. The book contained three elements that were thought necessary for witchcraft.

The evil-intentioned: Refutes critics who deny witchcraft and therefore stops prosecutions of witchcraft. The devil exists and has the power to do bewildering things and witches help the devil. But the Devils power is heightened when sexuality is involved and it was thought that women were more sexual than men and that some women had sex with the devil and thereafter became witches.

The help of the Devil: Forms of witchcraft and remedies. Discussion on the power of witches and recruitment and it was thought that witches recruited people. Witches were thought to cast spells and remedies to prevent witchcraft or to help those that had been affected by witchcraft.

The permission of God: Judges to combat and confronting witchcraft. The book offered a step-by-step guide including the torture of witnesses and the alleged witches. It was also thought that a woman who did not cry was a witch.

The main themes running through the book are what is witchcraft and who is a witch. One of the main themes was hatred of women (misogyny) as women were weak and were more susceptible to the devil and most alleged witches had strong personalities and defied convention. Malleus Maleficarum accused witches of casting evil spells, cannibalism, infanticide and having the powers to steal men’s penises. A humanistic theme was also present, covering philosophy; medicine, astronomy, ancient texts and the bible are just a few examples.

Other publications of interest:

In 1584 Reginald Scot published The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which followed the Chelmsford witch trials.

In 1587 Clergyman George Gifford publishes 'A Discourse Concerning the Subtle Practices of Devils by Witches and Sorcerers'.

In 1593 George Gifford published 'A Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcraftes'.

In 1597 James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) Publication of Demonology.

·The Witch Finder General

The witch finder general for East Anglia was Matthew Hopkins (ca 1620-1647). The background on Matthew Hopkins is very limited and the number of trials and executions are inconsistent and therefore the figures below might not match other figures. It is thought he lived at Manningtree in Essex and this is where his career in witch trials started. He tried to be a solicitor but failed twice. He was never employed by parliament and used the Civil war to his advantage and roomed around East Anglia without challenge from authority. It is thought that he overhead a group of women in March 1644, talking about a meeting they had with the Devil in Manningtree and he accused these women of being witches and Nineteen-Twenty four were hanged and four died in prison.

Hopkins then travelled around East Anglia from 1645-1647 with John Stearne and Mary Phillips. They could earn up to £20 for each witch from the local magistrates. It is estimated that he hanged two hundred and thirty alleged witches. Hopkins produced a pamphlet called ‘The discovery of witches’ in 1647, which defined witchcraft and the pamphlet helped him to manipulate the act of 1604. Mistley Lake in North Essex was the scene of seventy accused witches, which were drowned by Hopkins. The main interrogations were held at Manningtree (White Hart) and Mistley (The Thorn) and the trials were held at Chelmsford assizes.

The first victim of Hopkins was one legged, Elizabeth Clarke who confessed to keeping familiars, she was interrogated at Colchester Castle and the trial was at Chelmsford. Not all witches were women, John Lowes was 80 years old and a vicar at Brandeston in Suffolk, basically the villagers wanted a new vicar and eventually he was hanged for being a witch. Faith Mills of Fressingfield in Suffolk was hanged after confessing to having three familiars. In spring of 1645, 36 women were interrogated and nineteen executed at Chelmsford. In Suffolk 68 alleged witches were executed, in Sudbury one hundred and seventeen people were trialled and examined. In Norfolk in 1645, forty women were executed. During the summer of 1646, eight alleged witches were trialled and five executed in Huntingdonshire. At Great Yarmouth sixteen alleged witches were trialled and executed. It is thought that Hopkins trialled Two hundred people but only one hundred were executed; unfortunately the number of alleged witches is inclusive. The highest alleged witch execution in one day by Hopkins was nineteen. More witches were hanged in Essex than in any other English County.

During the year of 1646 a parliamentary pamphlet called ‘The modern intelligencer’ questioned Hopkins methods and John Gaule’s pamphlet ‘select case of conscience towards witches and witchcraft’ exposed Hopkins’ method of interrogation and hinted that Hopkins was a witch. In 1647 Hopkins rebutted this not to be true. It has been suggested that Hopkins was executed for witchcraft but there is no evidence for this claim but it is generally thought he died of tuberculosis. It is also thought that Hopkins Ghost visits Mistley, as this is thought to be his last resting place.

The witch-hunts continued for about forty years after Hopkins had died but not in the same way. During the Elizabethan period there were two hundred and seventy witchcraft trials, two hundred and forty seven were women and only twenty-three were men. Interestingly, Anne Boleyn was accused of being a witch due to her having a sixth finger and a prominent mole on her neck. The last woman hanged in England for witchcraft was Alice Holland in Exeter 1684. It is estimated between the years of 1542-1736 that one thousand people were executed for witchcraft in England and four thousand in Scotland. Thomas Edward and Ephraim Pagitt are other famous Witch Hunters.

How to tell a witch

During Matthew Hopkins reign of Witch finder General he derived many ways of supposedly recognizing a Witch. Most Witches were women, widows, and spinsters with a very low number of married women. It was believed that witches had intercourse with the Devil. Witches would have the devil’s mark, this is an area of the body that would not bleed and would be dead to all feelings shown by a disfiguration of some kind like a birth mark, scar, mole or boil but are not thought as boils or tumours or similar. The witches’ familiars, which are mainly a pet/animal (cat, fox, horse, toads, spiders and magpie are just a few examples), or a Spirit of a dead person or an element or material creature. The witches’ familiar was thought to drink blood from the Devils mark/third nipple and they ran errands, brought messages, and aided in devil worship. It was thought that witches were allocated an imp/familiar by the devil (i.e. animals).

It is also thought that a witch could turn themselves into animals. Witches were believed to kill babies, drink blood, conjure demons and desecrate the cross.

During the Elizabethan period, witches were blamed for unexplainable events such as the Black Death, other terrible diseases, animals dying, a bad harvest, housing burning down and even food curdling.

Witch trials

Alleged witches during Matthew Hopkins era were usually kept in cold, windowless cells and were sat on wooden stools, if the alleged witches fell asleep they were walked/marched around the cell, until they were awake. Sleep and food deprivation were used for 24 hours but it could last up to five days. They were also told that it was morning when it was not, to add to the confusion to get a confession. English witches were not burnt at the stake. The accused witches were also put through the swimming test, if they sank they would not be classed as witches but if they floated they would be classed as witches. The accused witches were usually tied up, with the left thumb to the right toe and then were thrown in to see if they floated. It was thought that the water would reject witches, as they would have renounced their baptism. Witch prickers used knives and needles to check for the Devils Mark.

One of the well-known witch trials was Pendle Hill in Lancastershire, which took place on 18th August 1612. In total thirteen people were on trial for witchcraft and were accused of murdering seventeen people by Witchcraft, Alizon Device, Elizabeth Device, James Device, Anne Whittle alias Chattox, Anne Redfern, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, Isobel Robey were hanged on the 20th August 1612 at Lancaster Gaol. Elizabeth Southerns alias Demdike died it Lancaster Gaol and Jennet Preston was trialled in Yorkshire and was hanged in York 29th July 1612. Margaret Pearson was found guilty of witchcraft but not have murder and was imprisoned for one year.

The witches were accused of selling their souls to the devil or their familiar, which in return they received power to kill or to lame. It is thought they made an entity of the intended victim and over a period of time, they would crumb or burn it, causing the victim death or illness. They were also accused of having a witches Sabbat meeting at Malkin tower on 10th April. Some of the pendle witches incriminated each other, while others maintained their innocence.

Anne Chattox was accused of killing John Device, Hugh Moore, John Moore, Anne Nutter and Robert Nutter. Elizabeth Demdike was accused of killing Richard Asshetan and the child of Richard Baldwin. Elizabeth Demdike, Elizabeth Device, Alice Nutter were accused of killing Henry Mitton. James Device was accused of killing John Duckworth, Blaze and John Hargreaves and Ann Towneley. Elizabeth Device was accused of murdering James and John Robinson. Katherine Hewitt was accused of killing Anne Foulds. Anne Redfern was accused of murdering Christopher Nutter. Jennet Preston was accused of murdering Thomas Lister. Alizon Device confused to cursing John Law, a peddler, when he refused to sell her some pins, he collapsed from a seizure but he forgave Alizon.

The Pendle witches were accused of having familiars, Margaret Pearson a Cloven-hoofed Man, Alison Devices a black dog, Elizabeth Device a ball, James Device a dandie, Anne Chattox a Fancie, Demdike a Tibb and Jennet Preston a white foal.

A witch trial in Pittanweem, Fife, Scotland took place during 1704-1705. Patrick Morton aged sixteen years old made allegations against a number of his neighbours. Beatrice Laing was accused of sending evil thoughts to torture Patrick. Beatrice was put into a dark dungeon, alone, tortured over the period of 5 months, but was freed and sadly died shortly after, alone. Thomas Brown was also accused but died in the dungeon. Janet Cornfoot (Corphat) was also accused but she escaped only to be re-captured by a mob on the 30th January 1705. Janet was dragged to the sea front and tied and swung between the shore and a ship, while being beaten and stoned, but a door that was piled with rocks eventually crushed Janet. A man drove a horse and cart over her body to make sure she was dead. She was buried in a communal grave, known as the witches’ corner. All the other people were freed once it was shown that Patrick was a liar, but no one was punished for the crimes against the alleged witches.

Properly the most famous American witch trials are that of Salem. Between February 1692 and May 1693, over one hundred and fifty people were imprisoned and fourteen women and five men were hanged at Gallows Hill, Salem Town, under the felony of witchcraft. Five people accused, died in prison and one other person died as he was being crushed to death under heavy stones, he survived this but died two days later. The trials in 1692 were heard in Ipswich, Andover, Salem village and town. Twenty-six people were convinced alone in Salem town.

During 1693 there were four sessions of witch trials and held in Ipswich, Boston, Charlestown and Salem Town. There were Thirty-one witchcraft trials but only three people were convicted.

Peabody Essex Museum holds 552 original documents from the Salem witch trials and the witch pins and finger bones of George Jacob are at Clerks office in Essex superior court house at Salem.

It is thought that many factors helped cause the hysteria of the Salem witch trials including, religion, family feuds, politics, economics and the fear and imagination of people. This witchcraft trial, the history before, during and after the witch trials are too vast for us to cover here, but we thought it warranted a brief mention.

Under the Witchcraft Act of 1735, Helen Duncan in 1944 was jailed under the witchcraft act, for pretending to summon Spirits but some contest this and say it was feared that she would reveal the secret D-Day plans, Helen was jailed for nine months. In the same year, Jane Rebecca Yorke was also jailed under the witchcraft act. Five people have recently been successfully prosecuted and convicted for witchcraft (1884, 1986, 1990,1991 and 1992), one person was prosecuted but not convicted in 1985.

The new act

From April 2008 the Fraudulent Mediums Act was replaced by the Consumer Protection Regulations (2007), which includes the unfair Commercial Practices Directive.

The new changes mean that Mediums, Psychics, Healers, Psychic Suppers, Clairvoyant Evening, Development Circles and other spiritual services who take money for services will be subject to consumer law, the same law as buying a faulty computer or other items. If a person does not get what is advertised they can take legal action. It is suggested by some professional bodies in the spiritual arena, to display a sign of ‘for entertainment purposes only’ but this is up to the individual if they do so.

With minor additions from  http://tracymonger.moonfruit.com/#/witchcraft-act/4532973897


What everyone imagines what witches do in their rituals in the western world. This is a real naked ritual circle.


This is a myth about witches riding a broomstick.





























KENYA   21 MAY 2008

A poor man in KENYA who was classed as being a Witch by his Christian Paster.



The above video is about Christianity at its best in Kenya.

In the Kenyan Village of Kisii Nyamataro, Five people were slowly burned alive because they were suspected of witchcraft. All because they did not acknowledge Jesus Christ as their God. Five young people, men and women, were beaten with sticks and set on fire to slowly roast while other villages, including the priest watched the spectacle [to see the video above click on the link]. Religion always brings out the best in people.



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