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From Professor Hare s Spiritual Telegraph

Julia Schlesinger, Robert Hare, M. D.  Professor of Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, Graduate of Yale College and Harvard University, Associate of the Smithsonian Institute, and Member of Various Learned Societies. The Carrier Dove (Oakland), May 1886: 101-104.

Professor Robert Hare.


Professor Robert Hare held an eminent position in the ranks of the scientists of America and Europe.  His Brief View of the Policy and Resources of the United States, was published in 1810, and was followed by more than a hundred publications from his pen, some of the political, moral, or financial nature, but mainly on the subject of chemistry and electricity.  He was the inventor of several ingenious machines for use in scientific investigations, and when his attention was called to the--as he then thought--delusion of Spiritualism, he invented some very complete machines--two of which we give illustrations of--to demonstrate the fallacy of table rappings and turnings.  Like many other scientists who have undertaken that task, he was hoisted by his own petard, but, unlike many of his co-workers in the scientific field of labour, he was honest enough when thoroughly convinced of the Spiritual origin of the phenomena, to publicly avow his belief, and shared the usual fate of persons who run counter to the ordinary, popular current.  Materialism is considered excusable in a scientists, but let one avow his belief in Angelic communion with humanity and the dogs of denunciation and vituperation are let loose.  In a letter published in July, 1853, Prof. Hare said: I recommend to your attention, and that of others interested in his hallucination, Faradayís observations and experiments, recently published in some of our respectable newspapers.  I entirely concur in the conclusions of that distinguished experimental expounder of natures riddles

In his book entitled Experimental Investigation of the Spirit Manifestations, published in 1855, from which we draw for this sketch, he frankly says, referring to that letter, I allege it to be an exemplification of wise ignorance, which is about equivalent to folly.  The wisest man who speaks in ignorance, speaks foolishly to the ears of those who perceive his ignorance.  The great mass of men of science appear in this light to Spiritualists when they argue against Spiritualism.  Shortly after the publication of that letter, Prof. Hare was induced to sit at a private house where Spirit rappings were produced; all his ingenious devices to account for the raps by mundane agencies failed to produce the expected result, and he soon learned there were many things in Heaven and earth heretofore. undreamed of in his philosophy.

His first investigations were with rapping Mediums and he soon became satisfied as to the honesty of the worthy people, who were themselves under a deception if these sounds did not proceed from spiritual agency.  Visiting another Medium, in the company of a legal friend, he received communications from the tippings of a table which indicated the letters to form messages as the fingers were passed over an alphabet.  When the Medium s eyes were directed away from the alphabet his companion received the following communication: Light is dawning on the mind of your friend; soon he will speak trumpet-tongued to the scientific world, and add a new link to that chain of evidence on which our hope of man s salvation is founded.

He invented a machine intended to demonstrate that the manifestations attributed to Spirits could be made without human agency.  (See engraving of apparatus accompanying this sketch, A.)  It will be readily seen that the tray upon which the Medium s hands were laid, rests upon balls, making it impossible for the Medium to move the table, or produce any action of the index upon the dial.  Having this apparatus at the residence of a lady by whom it had been actuated on previous occasions, he says: This lady sitting at the table as a Medium, my sister reported herself.  As a test question, I inquired What was the name of a partner in business of my father, who, when he left the city with the Americans during the Revolutionary War, came out with the British, and took care of the joint property  The disk revolved successively to letters correctly indicating the name to be Warren.  I then inquired the name of the partner of my English grandfather, who died in London more than seventy years ago.  The true name was given by the same process.  The Medium and all present were strangers to my family, and I had never heard either name mentioned, except by my father.Ē

Possibly a case of mind reading, which is the wise explanation that has been given in connection with our slate writing experience published in the last number of this magazine.  We live in a progressive age, and if the mind can revolve a disk, or write without human contact with the agents employed, we may yet develop its powers to a state wherein we can enjoy our otium cum dignitate in our easy chairs, and direct insensate matter to perform our manual labour.  Why not?  If it be true, as our Mind Cure friends assure us, that a fractured or dislocated limb can be restored to a sound condition by silent prayer.


Professor Hare's ingenious method of testing the power of the unseen intelligencies is very interesting, affording conclusive evidence of an invisible power acting in response to his desires (See B in plate of illustrations of apparatus, which is similar to machines used by Professor [William] Crook[e]s in his investigations.)  Referring to these trials he says: My much-esteemed friend, Professor [Joseph] Henry, having treated this result as incredible, I was induced to repeat it with the greatest precision and precaution.  A well-known Medium was induced to plunge his hands, clasped together to the bottom of the cage, holding them perfectly still.  As soon as these conditions were attained, the apparatus being untouched by anyone excepting the Medium as described, I invoked the aid of my Spirit friends.  A downward force was repeatedly exerted upon the end of the board appended to the balance equal to three pounds weight nearly.  It will be perceived that in this manifestation, the Medium had no means of communication with the board, besides the water.  It was not until he became quite still that the invocation was made.  Nevertheless, he did not appear to be subjected to any reacting force.  Yet, the distance of the hook of the balance from the fulcrum on which the board turned was six times as great as the cage in which the hands were situated.  Consequently, [102] a force of 3 x 6 = 18 pounds must have been exerted.  The board would probably have been depressed much more, but that the water had been spilled by any further inclination of the base.

This experiment has since been repeated again and again, but on a smaller scale, when, not only the downward force was exercised, but the spelling of words was accomplished.  On one occasion, when no result ensued, it appeared to arise from the water being so cold as to chill the Medium, because on warming it up to a comfortable temperature, the desired manifestations were obtained.

A practical illustration of the necessity for proper conditions for the medium, or, that the mind needs warmth for the exercise of its powers.  A crumb of comfort, for those in doubt as to their final destination.  Many of the experiments made by Professor Hare, through the agency of his dials, operated by different Mediums, effectually expose the fallacy of the mind theory, so frequently advanced as a refutation of spiritual agency.  Some of his interviews with Mrs. [Maria] Hayden--one of our first and best public Mediums--are very conclusive on this point.  He says: While in Boston, having read to a friend a communication from my father through a Writing-Medium, I placed it in one of my pockets and proceeded to the Fountain Inn.  When there, I felt for it without success.  Unexpectedly I went to Salem by the cars, and returned the same evening.  On undressing myself the scroll was missing, and I inferred that it had been lost between the place where it had been read and the inn above named, where I felt for it unsuccessfully.  In going next morning to Mrs. Hayden s, and my Spirit father reporting himself, I inquired whether he knew what had become of the scroll.  It was answered that it had been left upon the seat in the car on my quitting it at Salem.  Inquiring of the conductor, who was on duty in the car where it had been left, he said that it had been found on the seat, was safe at Portland, and should be returned to me the next day.  This promise was realized.

On one occasion, sitting at the disk with Mrs. Hayden, a spirit gave his initials as C. H. Hare.  Not recollecting any one of our relations of that name precisely, I inquired if he was one of them.  The reply was affirmative.  Are you a son of my cousin, Charles Hare, of St. Johns, New Brunswick  Yes was spelled out.  This Spirit then gave me the profession of his grandfather, also that of his father.  . . . Subsequently, the brother of this spirit made us a visit in Philadelphia, and informed us that the mundane career of his brother, Charles Henry, had been terminated by shipwreck, some four years anterior to the visit made, as mentioned to me.

A Spirit of the name of Powel tendered his services and undertook to spell Cato, but instead of that name, Blodget, my friend, occupied the disk, and spelt his own name, and afterward Cato.  On the same occasion Blodget spelt out and designated words without the Medium seeing the alphabet.  The employment of letters to express ideas neither existing in the mind of the Medium or in mine, cannot be explained by any psychological subterfuge.

Professor Hare became developed as a Medium sufficiently to enable him to converse with his spirit friends, and says in this connection: I am no longer under the necessity of defending media from the charge of falsehood and deception.  It is now my own character only that can be in question.  This being the condition the following test is only explicable by one of two theories: either Professor Hare--a man Sans peur, san reproche--was culpable or idiotic enough to make public a false statement, which, even if true, would only bring his good name and reputation into disrepute among his scientific associates; or, intelligent beings, outside of any human organization, exist and have to the power to communicate with mortals.

Being at the Atlantic hotel, Cape May, about one hundred and thirty miles distant from Philadelphia, on the third of July, 1855, at one o clock, Prof. Hare requested his Spirit sister to convey a message to Mrs. Gourlay, in Philadelphia, asking her to induce Dr. Gourlay to go to the Philadelphia Bank to ascertain the time when a note would be due, and to report to him at half-past three oíclock: she did report at the time appointed.

Prof. Hare states: After my return to Philadelphia, being at the residence of Mrs. Gourlay, I inquired of her whether she had received any message from me during my absence.  In reply, it was state that while a communication from her spirit mother was being made to her brother, who was present, my spirit messenger interrupted it to request her to send her husband to the bank to make the desired inquiry.  Her husband and brother went to the bank in consequence.  With the idea received by the latter, my sisterís report coincided agreeably to his statement to me.  All this proves that a Spirit must have officiated, as nothing else can explain the transaction.  The note-clerk recollects the application, but does not appear to have felt himself called upon to take the trouble to get the register, which was not in his hands at the time.  Hence, the impression received by the applicants was not correct, but corresponded with the report made to me by my sister, which differed from the impression on my memory, and, of course, was not obtained from my mind.

Wishing to make this transaction a test, I was particularly careful to manage so that I might honourably insist on it as a test; and, until I learned the fact from Mrs. Gourlay and from the note-clerk, that the inquiry was made, it did not amount to a test manifestation.  I submit these facts to the public, as proving that there must have been an invisible, intelligent being with whom I communicated at Cape Island, who bore my message to Mrs. Gourlay, so as to induce the application at the bank.  Otherwise, what imaginable cause could have produced the result, especially within the time occupied of two and a half hours.

The existence of Spirit agency being thus demonstrated, I am justified in solemnly calling on my contemporaries to give credence to the important information which I have received from spirits, respecting the destiny of the human soul after death.  They may be assured that every other object of consideration sinks into insignificance in comparison with this information and the bearing it must have upon morals, religion, and politics, whenever it can be known and be believed by society in general, as it is by me.

Had Professor Hare--the man of scientific attainments which placed him in the front rank of scientists in Europe and America--published a monograph on the cerements of an unusual character, found on the body of a mummy, decayed and sanctified by the dust of three thousand years, he would have been accorded a hearing by his scientific dry-as-dust contemporaries, and his scientific treatment of the matter would have been lauded by them as evidence of his remarkable acumen and powers of scientific research.

Alas! the honourable man and renowned scientist had made a grand mistake, in the estimation of his compeers, in turning from his chemical investigations to the study of the evidences of immortal life, and all its unspeakable grandeur of progression.  He cast his pearls before learned swine, and swinishly did they turn and rend him.  His earnest appeals to his learned confreres to listen to the evidences of the immortality of the human spirit, which he had demonstrated through strictly scientific methods of investigation, was contemptuously thrust aside, and the wise men continued in the more congenial pursuits of watching the wonderful developments of nature in the transformation of tadpoles tails and bugology.

Professor Hare gives the experience of many other investigators of the phenomena, as corroborative evidence to support [103] his own statements; among them that of [homeopathic] Dr. [William] Geib [of Philadelphia], which we give to illustrate some of the wonderful phases of Mediumship now being daily exercised in our midst.  The Medium referred to is Mrs. Ada Foye, of San Francisco.

Dr. Geib says: Being subsequently in the city of New York, I visited the public circles of a Medium for automatic writing and the sounds.  Being requested, as the rest had been, but without response, to ask if any of my Spirit friends were present, my interrogation was answered by three distinct raps upon the table. 

Now ask who it is: a father, mother and so on;

and I was informed it was a son.

Is your sister with you


Will you spell his name


and it was correctly given. 

Is her little son with her


Will you spell his name


and a name of seventeen letters was correctly spelled out by the card, the letters being indicated, when pointed to, by three raps.  My Spirit son also informed me when he had died, and of what disease.  It will be observed that my sonís name had not been mentioned, reserving it for a test.  Three raps had replied in the affirmative to my question, when the Medium spasmodically seized a pencil, extended a sheet of paper toward me, and wrote upside down, so that I might read it as written:

We are looking forward for you to join us, when we shall be more so;

and to my perfect delight and astonishment, signed my sonís name to the communication, asking whether the name was correct.

On a subsequent occasion, when a large and respectable company was present, I remarked to the Medium that she had reported the fact that foreign languages had been written by her hand.

All kinds of language; but I donít know anything about them, was the reply.

If you have no objection, I should like to get a communication from my son, in a foreign language.

Oh, not in the least; if he knew it in this world, he will know it in the next.

My son, will you give me a communication in a foreign language; Answer, three raps. 

The company were all intent on this striking and convincing test of spiritual intercourse.

In French;

No; one rap. 

In Spanish;  Three raps.

The Mediumís hand, as before, seized the pencil, and wrote upside down a communication in correct Spanish, though we all accepted her declaration that she was not acquainted with one word of the Spanish language.

We have presented some of Professor Hare s experiments with the phenomena of Spiritualism, and will close our sketch with some of the conclusions to which he arrived in consequence thereof.

Professor Hare says: Confining the range of my philosophy to the laws of motion, magnificently illustrated by the innumerable solar systems, but no less operative in every minute mechanical movement, I hold that I could only come to the same conclusion as Faraday, that if tables when associated with human beings moved, it must in some way be due to those beings, since, agreeably to all experience of the laws of matter in the material world, inanimate bodies can not originate motion.  But as when the planetary motions are considered, any hypothesis fails which does not account for the rationality of the result, and therefore involves the agency, not only of a powerful but a rational cause; so the manifestations of Spiritualism, involving both reason and power, might consistently justify me in looking for agents endowed with the reason and power manifested by the phenomena.  This power being invisible and imponderable, and at the same time rational, there was no alternative but to consider it as spiritual, no less than that to which the planetary motion is due.  In its potentiality the power thus manifested might be extremely minute as compared with the potentiality of the Creator, still it had to be of the same spiritual nature.

It has not appeared unreasonable to infer that the soul in assuming the Spirit Form should acquire a power of which material beings are destitute, and of which they can only conceive an idea from its necessity to the operations of God.  Parting with its material attributes, were the soul not to acquire others, even if it could exist, it would be perfectly helpless.  Hence, in becoming an immaterial Spirit, it must acquire powers indispensible and appropriate to that state of existence.

Although Professor Hare s efforts to induce his scientific friends to investigate Spiritualism were met with contempt or indifference, his interest continued unabated and he continued his communions and investigations to the end of his earth life, deriving great comfort there-from.  Writing in 1858, he says: Far from abating my confidence in the inferences respecting the agencies of the Spirits of deceased mortals, in the manifestations of which I have given an account in my work, I have, within the last nine months, had more striking evidence of that agency than those given in the work in question.




With slight additions from Spirit History


From the book by Professor Robert Hare. Experimental Investigation of the Spirit Manifestations. New York: Partridge & Britten, 1855. Reprint, Elk Grove, Wis.: Sycamorte Press, 1963.

Click on link below to read the whole of this book on line


To go to this link I found it best block this link, then to copy [ hold down control then press C ] place the curser in the empty top line in your internet explorer the paste [ hold down control then press V ] when there click onto read online. A very interesting book.

If  you place into Google  Experimental Investigation of the Spirit Manifestations you will get a word document of the full book which you can then read at your leisure. it has 439 pages in it otherwise I would have placed it on here. But it is 1.40 megabytes.

Pease's Apparatus.



Engraving and description of the capparatus, which, being contrived for the purpose of determining whether the manifestations attributed to Spirits could be made without mortal aid, by deciding the question affirmatively, led to the author's conversion.

(a) PLATE 1. FIG. 1, is an engraving from a photograph of the apparatus above alluded to. The disk A is represented as supported upon a rod of iron forming the axis on which it turns. To the outer end of this rod, the index B is affixed, so as. to be stationary in a vertical position; the upper termination situated just in front of the letters. These are placed around the margin of the disk. The cord C encircles the pulley situated about the centre of the disk, like a hub to a carriage wheel. The ends of the cord are severally tied to weights, which, when the table is tilted, react against each other through the pulley; one being so large as to be immovable, the other so small as to be lifted. Of course a hook in the floor may be substituted for the larger weight. PEASE'S APPARATUS.

(b) The relative position of the Medium, and that of the screen intercepting her view of the disk, are too conspicuous to require particularization. G 2, represents Pease's disk, or dial apparatus, associated with a vibrating lever and stand contrived by myself. The whole, thus modified, has been named the Spiritoscope. (c) The apparatus thus designated consists of a box F, which is a miniature representation of a low, square, four sided house, with a single sloping roof, but without any floor closing it at the bottom.

(d) On the outside of the part serving as the roof, the alphabetic dial is depicted. On the inner surface of the roof board, the spring, pulley, and strings are attached, by which the index is made to revolve, so as to point out any letter.

(e) G represents the vibrating lever upon which the Medium's hands are placed. When test conditions are not requisite, her hands should be situated so as that merely one-half may be on each side of the fulcrum wire, on which the lever turns. When test conditions are requisite, the hands should be altogether on the portion of the board which is between the exterior end of the board and the fulcrum. When thus placed, it is utterly impossible to move the lever so as to cause it to select letters, or to control the selection, by any spirit who may be employing them to make a communication.

(f) Not only are the letters of the alphabet printed equidistant, in due order, on the margin of the disk or dial-face; there are likewise words, the digits, and notes of music.

(g) The words are as follows: Yes-Doubtful-No-Don't know-I think so-A mistake --'ll speZl it over-A messeage-Done-I'll come again-Good-bye-I musst leave. These words are printed on equidistant radial lines, nearly dividing the area between them. The digits are printed on radial lines intermediate between those on which the words appear. Five concentric circular lines, dividing the margin into as many smaller portions, as in music paper, serve for the indicting of musical notes; respecting which the directions are given by Pease upon a printed slip of paper pasted inside.

(h) The index in this instrument is secured upon the outer end of a pivot supporting a pulley of about 4 of an inch in diameter. The spring consists of a coil of brass wire, of which one end is fastened into the inside of the roof-board (c) of which the outside forms the surface for the letters, &c., while the other end of the wire is prolonged beyond the coil to about 212 inches, and, by means of a loop, has a string of catgut tied to it securely This string iv fastened to a perforation in the pivot. Another piece of the same kind of string is fastened to the circumference of the pulley. The pivot being turned so as to wind upon it the string proceeding from the spring, and thus constraining it so as to make it capable of effectual recoil from the pulley, the latter may, with a little care, be made, as the spring recoils, to wind about it another string duly attached to its circumference. The strings being thus wound, (one to the right, the other to the left,) when the string attached to the pulley is pulled from the outside of the box, it is unwound there-from, and mean-while winds that attached to the spring upon the pivot. The reaction of the spring, when left to itself, reverses this process, producing the opposite revolution in the pulley. The index attached to the pivot of course turns in one direction or the other, as the pivot is actuated by the drawing out or retraction of the string which proceeds from it. This, at the outer end, is tied to a ring, which prevents it from receding into the box.

(i) It is surprising with what readiness a Spirit, even when unused to the apparatus, will, by moving the lever, actuate the index, causing it to point to the letters, words, or figures distributed on the face of the disk, as above mentioned.

(j) The apparatus of Pease above described, agreeably to the design of the maker, operates by means of a string extending from the brass ring, in which the pulley string terminates externally, to a weight situated upon the floor, so as to be taut when at rest. When this arrangement is made, tilting of the table, by raising the end at which the box is situated, causes the weight to pull the string, and of course to induce the revolution of the pulley, its pivot, and corresponding index. The restoration of the table to its usual position reverses the motion. Hence by these means the index may be moved either way, as requisite for the selection of the letters required for communicating.

(k) The other figure in the same plate represents Pease's disk apparatus, so arranged, as to be affixed to any table of moderate dimensions. The fulcrum on which the lever vibrates is so made as to be affixed to one of the table's edges by clamps, while the disk, situated in a vertical plane, is supported by a bar which has a clamp to secure it to the table, while to the disk it is fastened by being introduced into square staples, made to receive it securely, in a mode resembling that by which a square bolt is secured. Under the vibrating lever, a hollow wire is fastened by staples, so as to receive a solid wire, which can be made to slide farther in or out, and thus adjust itself to the distance 


Illustration of Apparatus Used by Prof. Hare


Description of the instrument by which spirits were enabled to move a table under the influence of mediumship, yet in no wise under the control of the medium employed, even clairvoyance being nullified.

(i) The table is about six feet in length, and sixteen inches in width, so contrived as to separate into three parts for conveniency of carriage.

(j) The pair of legs under the right side are upon castors. Those on the left side upon an axle, passing through perforations suitably made for its reception. The axle consists of a rod of about one inch in thickness. The axle serves for two wheels of about six inches diameter, of which one is grooved. A disk, already described as appertaining to apparatus in a preceding page, is secured upon a pivot affixed to a strip of wood, which is made to slide between two other strips attached to the frame of the table just under the top board. By these means, the band embraces both the hub of the disk and the wheel; when this turns in consequence of the shoving of the table horizontally along the floor, the disk turns with the wheel, and as much faster as the circumference of the groove in the hub, is less than that of the groove in the wheel.

(k) The index is in this apparatus situated precisely as in that described in Plate I.; and any mortal having due hold of the table, may, by shoving it one way or the other, bring any letter under the index, so as to spell out any desired word. But no person, sitting as the medium is in the engraving represented to sit, with the plate on two balls, can actuate the disk so as to spell out words as above mentioned. Utterly incapacitated from moving the table, it were manifestly impossible to actuate the disk, or to interfere with the movements otherwise imparted.

(1) In the employment of the apparatus (Plate I.) it has been suggested that through clairvoyance the medium might see the letters, despite of the screen, or might learn them from the mind of the observer; but in this case the Medium sees the letters without the aid of clairvoyancy; but this power does not account for the regulation of the manifestations; since, even seeing the letters, they cannot control the movements so as to give to the intuitive power thus exercised any efficacy.

(m) On the surface of the table, on the right, may be seen a board upon castors. This was contrived as a substitute for the plate on balls. The castors, of course, perform the same office as the balls in allowing a solid material communication between the hands of the medium and the table, without giving the power to induce or control the movement. Evidently, though by any horizontal impulse the medium might cause the castors to turn and the board to move in consequence, the force necessary to effect this must fall short of that requisite to move the table.

(n) In point of fact, the board, when under the plate, balls, and hands of the Medium, was often moved rapidly to and fro, without moving the table. To move this under such conditions without moving the board or tray, required a distinct spiritual process, of much greater difficulty, and which some spirits were either unwilling or unable to employ successfully

Description of Apparatus Illustrated.


(o) On the opposite page is a representation of an experiment, in which the medium was prevented from having any other communication with the apparatus, actuated under his mediumship, excepting through water. Yet under these circumstances the spring balance indicated the exertion of a force equal to 18 pounds.

(p) A board is supported on a rod so as to make it serve as a fulcrum, as in a see-saw, excepting that the fulcrum is at the distance of only a foot from one end, while it is three feet from the other. This end is supported by a spring-balance which indicates pounds and ounces by a rotary index.

(q) Upon the board, at about six inches from the fulcrum, there is. a hole into which the knob of an inverted glass vase, nine inches in diameter, is inserted.

(r) Upon two iron rods proceeding vertically from a board resting on the floor, so as to have one on each side of the vase, a cage of wire, such as is used to defend food from flies, of about five inches diameter, is upheld [inverted] by the rod within the vase concentrically, so as to leave between it and the sides of the vase an interstice of an inch nearly, and an interval of an inch and a half between it and the bottom of the vase.

(s) The vase being filled with water until within an inch of the brim, the medium's hands were introduced into the cage and thus secured from touching the vase.

(t) These arrangements being made, the Spirits were invoked to show their power, when repeatedly the spring-balance indicated an augmentation of weight equal to three pounds. The relative distances of the vase and balance from the fulcrum being as 6 to 36, the force exerted must have been 3 X 6 = 18 pounds; yet the Medium did not appear to be subjected to any reaction, and declared that he experienced none.

(u) It was on stating this result to the Association for the Advancement of Science, that I met with much the same reception as the King of Ava gave to the Dutch ambassador, who alleged water to be at times solidified in his country, by cold, so as to be walked upon.

(v) The belief in spiritual agency was treated as a mental disease, with which I, of course, had been infected; those who made this charge being perfectly unconscious that their education has associated morbid incredulity with bigoted and fanatical credence.



(x) The apparatus of which the opposite cuts afford a representation are spiritoscopes, under modifications to which I resorted subsequently to the contrivance in which Pease's dial is employed. For Pease's "dial," disks are substituted, resembling those originally employed by me, as represented in Plates I. and II. These last mentioned, however, were made to revolve under the index; while in Pease's apparatus the index revolves, the disk remaining at rest. The advantage of having the disk to revolve is, that the letter is always to be looked for, within the same space; whereas in operating with the other the eye has to follow the index through all its rapid movements.

(y) The convenience and economy of casting the disks of iron was deemed a sufficient motive for resorting to the rotation of the index; as when made of that metal the disk becomes too heavy to be rotated with ease, first one way and then another.

(z) In FIG. 1 the vibrating lever is resorted to, and the process is precisely the same as that already described, in which Pease's dial is associated with the same mechanism.

(aa) The words on the dial faces in Figures 1 and 2 are somewhat abbreviated.

(bb) The rod R slides in staples, so as to be made to extend farther or nearer from the fulcrum. The legs on which the disk is supported, which are a part of the casing, terminate below in a socket which fits upon a plug screwed into the base-board; upon this plug it may be fastened by the set screw(s). By sliding the rod (r) inward, the disk may be turned half round upon the plug, so as to place the lettered surface out of the sight of the medium, whose power to influence the communications is thus nullified. This is one mode of attaining test conditions; in other words, those conditions which make it impossible that the communications received should be due to any mortal, (151 to 166,) unless, as gratuitously and erroneously, as I believe, alleged, the medium by clairvoyancy sees the letters,

(cc) By another method test conditions are obtained which are not exposed to this evil.

(dd) The method to which I allude has been explained in the description of Plate I. in reference to the spiritoscope formed with the aid of a Pease's disk, paragraph (e). The process is the same in the employment of Fig. I Plate IV. under consideration. It may be better understood in this case, as the illustration of the lever board L is more conspicuous. In the ordinary mode of operating without test conditions, the hand of the medium is so situated as to have nearly half of it beyond the fulcrum, marked by the line FL. When test conditions are imposed, the tips of the fingers only reach to that line, without going beyond it. Situated as last mentioned, the Medium to whom they appertain cannot move the rod X, because it is already against the lower edge of the disk, which prevents it from moving upwards. In the opposite direction the medium can create no pressure, since her efforts could only tend to lift her hand, per se, from the disk. It is important that the reader should pay attention to this exposition, as the conditions thus made evident are often appealed to as one proof, among others, that my information and credentials are from the immortal worthies of the spirit world.

(ee) FIG. 2 is analogous in its mode of operating, to the apparatus represented in Plate II. It is in the substitution of a small board for a table that the principal difference consists.t The board requires only to be large enough to allow the hands to rest upon it in front of the disk. The index is actuated by a horizontal motion to and fro, which, as in the apparatus, Plate II., causes the rotation of a supporting wheel, which by means of a band communicates rotation to a pulley supported behind the disk on the pivot to which the index is secured in front. The sliding pulley P being fastened at a due distance from the disk (o), is used to keep the band tight.

(ff) This instrument is preferred by the spirits, and is easier for a feeble medium to employ effectually. I cannot as yet avail myself of Fig. 1; through Fig. 2 I have had some interesting tests.

(gg) This form, then, is best for incipient mediumship. (hh) FIG. 2 may be employed under test conditions, by so situating it as that the dial shall be on the side opposite to that where the medium sits; under these circumstances she cannot see the index or the letters, and consequently cannot control the spelling of Spirits, so as to give results from her own mind instead of theirs. This mode of testing does not preclude the subterfuge, so often resorted to, of clairvoyant power, enabling the medium to see through the cast-iron, or read the letters in the minds of the bystanders. This power I have never witnessed; yet it is absurdly attributed to media who, as well as all their friends, are ignorant of the existence of any such power. (ii) Another mode of testing is that illustrated in Plate II., where a plate upon two balls supports the hands of the Medium, and forms the only means of conducting communication between the medium and apparatus. It may be easily conceived that instead of the hands being placed upon the board, the plate and balls being interposed, the hands of the medium may be supported over the board of Fig. 2, as they are represented to be supported over the table in Fig. 1, Plate II. See 167, 169, 172, 177, 196. (Ick) FIG. 3, Plate IV., is a representation of an association of serrated strips of iron in a wooden frame, which sliding on the lever board of Fig. 1, so as to have the saws just above the back of the hand of the medium, is found to increase the efficacy of the mediumship. It is only of importance to use it when test conditions are requisite, as explained already, Fig. 1,

(hh). The rationale, so far as it can be suggested, will be stated under the head of mediumship. It will be perceived that the size of the frame is not in due proportion to the lever board, being upon a larger scale. But this renders it more conspicuous, and the reader can easily conceive its size to be such as to allow the grooves in the wooden sides of the frame to receive the edges of the lever board L, and thus to be secured firmly thereupon.' These disks cost at the foundry about 37. cents a piece. One may be used as a pattern by which to cast others. f There is also this difference, that in Fig. 2 the board is supported by only three wheels, so as to have one in front under the hands of the medium, by which sufficient pressure is secured to make its rotation certain. But as the position thus given does not fall into the plane of the pulley at the back of the disk, the wheel in question is supported upon an axle which is secured in staples or holes, and carries a pulley just at the position where it is coincident with the plane aforesaid. The wheel is visible in front.

From the book by Professor Hare, Robert. Experimental Investigation of the Spirit Manifestations. New York: Partridge & Britten, 1855. Reprint, Elk Grove, Wis.: Sycamorte Press, 1963.

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