William H Mumler, William Mumler,


 Medium William H Mumler    USA.

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 William  H  Mumler Medium


William H. Mumler  was an American Spirit photographer who worked in New York and Boston. His first Spirit photograph was a self-portrait which developed to apparently show his deceased cousin. Mumler then left his job as a jeweler, instead opting to work as a full time photographer, taking advantage of the large number of people who had lost relatives in the American Civil War. Perhaps his two most famous works are the photograph of Mary Todd Lincoln with the ghost of her husband Abraham Lincoln, and his photo of Master Herrod, a Medium, with three Spirit Guides.
 Before beginning his career as a spirit photographer, Mumler worked as a jewel engraver in Boston, practicing amateur photography in his spare time. In the early 1860s, he developed a self-portrait [above] that appeared to feature the apparition of his cousin who had been dead for 12 years. This is widely credited as the first Spirit Photograph,,,a photograph of a living subject featuring the likeness of a deceased person (often a relative) imprinted by the Spirit of the deceased. Mumler then became a full-time spirit photographer, and moved to New York where his work was analyzed by numerous photography experts, none of whom could find any evidence that they were fraudulent. Spirit photography is thought to have been a lucrative business thanks to the families of those killed during the American Civil War seeking reassurance that their relatives lived on.

Critics of Mumler's work included P. T. Barnum, who claimed Mumler was taking advantage of people whose judgment was clouded by grief. After the discovery that some of Mumler's 'ghosts' were in fact living people, and accusations that he had broken into houses to steal photos of deceased relatives, Mumler was brought to trial for fraud in April 1869. Barnum testified against him, hiring Abraham Bogardus to create a picture that appeared to show Barnum with the ghost of Abraham Lincoln to demonstrate the ease with which the photos could be created. Those testifying in support of Mumler included Moses A. Dow, a journalist who Mumler had photographed. Though acquitted of fraud, Mumler's career was ruined and he died in poverty in 1884.



Mrs Mary Todd Lincoln      President Abraham Lincoln

Above is a developed photographic plate taken by Mumler of Mrs Mary Todd Lincoln months after her husband was assassination on the April 15, 1865, [when he was alive President Abraham Lincoln is one on the right ]. Mary allowed some of her friends who were Spiritualists to visit her in the White House, where some seances took place, as well as clairvoyant readings by several of the Spiritualist. They attempted to console the grieving widow. Many times to avoid publicity Mary went to outside seances under assumed names. Being mediumistic herself she liked to test the Mediums' skills. Once, on a trip to Boston, she attended a seance using the name Mrs. Tundall to avoid recognition, on this occasion as it was widely publicized, this time she must have been noticed.

Abraham her husband appeared before her during one of the many seances, records show no mention of the Medium who sat for the First Lady at that seance. This photograph gave Mary great comfort that Abraham was still with her and could be shown to be so.

During the bereavement period, Mrs Lincoln visited William Mumler's studio. Mumler with his help of Spirit produced the photograph above of Mary with Abraham with his hands on her shoulders.

A paranormal researcher Melvyn Willin, in his book Ghosts Caught on Film, claims that the photo was taken around 1869, and that Mumler did not know that his sitter was Lincoln, instead believing her to be a 'Mrs Tundall'. Willin goes on to say that Mumler did not discover who she was until after the photo was developed.The College of Psychic Studies, referencing notes belonging to William Stainton Moses (who has appeared in photographs by other spirit photographers), claim that the photo was taken in the early 1870s, Lincoln had assumed the name of 'Mrs. Lindall' and that Lincoln had to be encouraged by Mumler's wife (a Medium) to identify her husband on the photo.Though the image has been dismissed as being accidental double exposure, it has been widely circulated. {Is this yet again the establishment and the Christian Church and other religions throwing mud ?}.


Master Herrod

Master Herrod of North Bridgwater, Massachusetts

Mumler 's advertisements in spiritualist publications offered two photographs of Master Herrod of North Bridgwater, Massachusetts for sale:
This young man is a Medium. Before sitting for this picture three Spirits offered to show themselves, representing Europe, Africa and America. As will be seen by the picture, this promise was fulfilled. Also a picture was taken while entranced, and shows his double. (The Religio-Philosophical Journal, August 24, 1872)
Dr. Nandor Fodor, in his Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science (1934), explains that the Spirits representing the continents were "a European, a Negro, and an Indian." And Fodor further quotes Mumler as writing,

It then occurred to me to take [Master Harrod's] picture while entranced, to see if I could get the controlling power; and to that end I asked if there was any Spirit present would he please entrance the Medium. In a few moments he threw his head back, apparently in a deep trance. I then adjusted the focus and exposed the plate, and took the picture as represented. The Spirit seen here is undoubtedly his double as it is unmistakably a true likeness of himself.
While Master Herrod seems rather young to be dabbling in the occult, it should be remembered that spiritualism in America was launched by two young sisters in 1848. Margaret and Kate Fox were ages 15 and 11 when they began to converse with spirits of the deceased at their home in Hydesville, New York. This communication took the form of mysterious rapping sounds that answered spoken questions.


Other photographs
Other photographs by Mumler included pictures showing various Spirits (including relatives, fiancés, actresses and spirit guides) with living sitters. Other well known sitters include Moses A. Dow (editor of The Waverley Magazine) whose photograph apparently showed the Spirit of his assistant Mabel Warren, and Fannie Conant, a well known Medium from Boston, apparently photographed with the ghost of her brother Chas.

After being accused of various activities, he was taken to court for fraud, with noted showman P. T. Barnum testifying against him. Though found not guilty, his career was over, and he died in poverty.

Willin, Melvyn. "The Earliest Images". Ghosts Caught on Film: Photographs of the Paranormal. West, Donald. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. pp. 22. ISBN 9780715327289.
 "The paranormal pictures of William Mumler". College Times. 2006-04-20. Archived from the original on 2006-04-22. http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/viewnews.php?id=67517. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
Boese, Alex. "William Mumler's Spirit Photography". http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/day/04_26_2001.html. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
"William Stainton Moses collection". College of Psychic Studies. http://www.collegeofpsychicstudies.co.uk/index.html?http%3A//www.collegeofpsychicstudies.co.uk/archives/examples.html. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
Wagner, Stephen. "Paranormal Photo Hoax". About.com. http://paranormal.about.com/od/ghostphotos/a/aa041607.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
Wagner, Stephen. "Presidents and the Paranormal". About.com. http://paranormal.about.com/library/weekly/aa022100a.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
Kaplan, Louis. "The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer" (University of Minnesota Press, 2008). Includes Mumler's autobiography and a large collection of his photos, including his well-known photo of the recently assassinated Abraham Lincoln comforting Mary Todd. Also includes news coverage of Mumler's sensational 1869 trial. http://www.upress.umn.edu/Books/K/kaplan_strange.html

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Mumler"


He lived in Boston, Massachusetts, where he was employed as the head engraver of the jewelry firm Bigelow, Kennard & Co. According to his account, one day, in a friend's studio, he tried to take a photograph of himself by focusing the camera on an empty chair and springing into position on the chair after uncapping the lens. Upon developing the plate he discovered an extraneous figure, a young, transparent girl sitting in the chair, fading away into a dim mist in the lower parts. He identified the girl as his cousin who had died twelve years before. The experiment was repeated and he became satisfied that the extra faces appearing on his plates were of supernatural origin. The news of Mumler's discovery spread and he was besieged with so many requests for sittings that he gave up his position and became a professional spirit photographer.

Among the first to investigate Mumler's powers was Andrew Jackson Davis, then editor of the Herald of Progress in New York. He first sent a professional photographer to test Mumler and on his favorable report conducted an investigation himself. He was satisfied that the new psychic manifestation was genuine.

Mumler's reputation was established and, as his fame grew, he did tremendous business.

The first scandal, however, was not long in coming. It was discovered that he obtained from time to time the spirit portraits of men who were very much alive. Apologists claimed that the pictures must be genuine since they had been recognized by relatives and that the processes of production had been properly supervised to obviate fraud. It was thought that the living individuals might be doubles of the "spirits." Mumler himself could not explain the result, but eventually even local Spiritualists accused him of trickery. Such a hue and cry was raised that in 1868 he was forced to transfer his headquarters to New York.

He prospered for a while until he was arrested by the order of the mayor of New York on an accusation of fraud raised by a newspaperman. who was backed by Barnam the very rich person of the travelling circus fame. The journalist, P. V. Hickey, of the New York World, approached Mumler for a spirit photograph, giving a false name, hoping to get a good story for his newspaper. However, at the trial professional photographers and independent citizens testified for Mumler and he was acquitted.

His further career was filled with ups and downs; Mumler died on May 16, 1884, in poverty.


Aksakof, A. N. Animisme et Spiritisme. Reprint, Paris, 1985. English ed. as: Animism and Spiritism. Leipzig: Oswald Meats, 1890.

Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991.

Mumler, William H. Personal Experiences of William H. Mumler in Spirit Photography. N.p., 1875.

Sidgwick, Eleanor. "On Spirit Photography: A Reply to Mr. A. R. Wallace." Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 7 (1891).


Spirit photography, was taken to court in New York City in 1869. The case: a preliminary hearing for William H. Mumler, who was charged with fraud for selling photographs that he claimed included images of ghosts or spirits. Testimony and arguments lasted for seven days. On Mumler's side, witnesses included a prominent former judge who was also a spiritualist. Among the opposing witnesses were several photographers who explained how the same effects could be achieved by darkroom tricks, and P. T. Barnum--who said he purchased some of Mumler's photographs to exhibit them in his museum as specimens of humbug.

The hearing attracted nationwide attention, including the full cover page (and back-page cartoon ) of the mass circulation Harper's Weekly.

In the end, the judge in the case reluctantly decided to drop the charges against Mumler, citing a lack of evidence. According to The New York Daily Tribune, the judge explained "however he might believe that trick and deception had been practiced [by Mumler], yet, as he sat there in his capacity as magistrate, he was compelled to decide...the prosecution had failed to prove the case."

Both sides were thus able to declare victory. The prosecution had exposed Mumler, revealing that the same "ghost" appeared in certain photographs taken in Boston and New York-- a "spirit" who turned out to be very much a living mortal.


In The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer, Louis Kaplan brings together, for the first time, Mumler’s haunting images, his revealing memoir, and rich primary sources, including newspaper articles and P. T. Barnum’s famous indictment of Mumler in Humbugs of the World. Kaplan also contributes two extended essays, which offer a historical perspective of the Mumler phenomena and delve into the sociocultural and theoretical issues surrounding this vivid ghost story.

Mumler’s case was an early example of investigative journalism intersecting with a criminal trial that, at its essence, set science against religion. The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer is the definitive resource for this unique and fascinating moment in American history and provides insights into today’s ghosts in the machine.

“This book is an important contribution to the growing literature on spirit photography and gives the reader an intimate insight into the world of the Spiritualists and the occult power of the photograph in the 1860s. An extremely valuable resource.” Martyn Jolly, author of Faces of the Living Dead: The Belief in Spirit Photography

Kaplan does a great job of presenting both sides of the story and letting the reader decide about Mumler’s methods and motives — be they spiritual or earthly. The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer is a great reference for anyone studying photography, the Civil War era, trial law, ghosts, or spiritualism. Twin Cities Daily Planet

Professor Louis Kaplan allows history to speak in its own words for most of The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer. He couldn’t have made a more enlightening or entertaining choice. No modern telling could adequately capture the vibrancy and strangeness of the United States’ 19th-century infatuation with communication between the living and the dead. Globe and Mail.

Kaplan’s book is a must-have for researchers who want to know how we arrived at the notion that a ghost might be photographed, and that no matter if something is real or proved fake, when it comes to spirituality, sometimes belief is stronger than facts.” Ghost Village

Kaplan’s sources provide a rich archive for photographic historians and for scholars interested in the intersection of photography with law, print culture, and the growing professionalization of the art in the second half of the nineteenth century. The Journal of American History

Louis Kaplan is director of the Institute of Communication and Culture at the University of Toronto at Mississauga and associate professor of history and theory of photography and new media in the Graduate Department of Art at the University of Toronto. He is the author of American Exposures: Photography and Community in the Twentieth Century (Minnesota, 2005).

288 pages | 48 b&w photos, 16 color photos | 6 1/8 x 9 1/4 | 2008

Source  http://www.upress.umn.edu/Books/K/kaplan_strange.html


Reviewed by TimTrain

A photographer operating in Boston and New York during the 1860s, William Mumler provided a questionable service: he would photograph clients in his studio, and present them with portraits in which they were accompanied by semi-visible spirits. Mumler's clientele included many of the richest and most famous of Americans—one portrait has Mary Todd Lincoln seated in front of her dead husband, Abraham,,,were limited to about four a day, and were sold for as high a price as they could get. He was eventually taken to court by the editors of the New York World newspaper, who were aided by the Mayor of New York City.

The documentary material relating to Mumler's career in The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer is fascinating, bemusing, beautiful, technically adept, groundbreaking, and instructive; but it is hardly strange. There is very little that is really strange about the case of William Mumler, for there is probably no artistic medium in the world that has not been used deceptively for the purposes of personal gain. In a twisted way, the case of Mumler is reassuring, for it demonstrates the ease with which a technically-savvy con-man with a can-do spirit can make use of the photographic medium to gull credulous fellow citizens into giving him money. And Mumler's pictures were most assuredly fakes; anyone who has watched a Hollywood film is aware of how easily a picture can be manipulated to produce an illusion.

In The Strange Case of William Mumler, editor Louis Kaplan has compiled a collection of press clippings, photographs, personal biographies of Mumler, along with the criticism the man received from contemporaries (including famous showman P.T. Barnum), and on the whole makes a good show of editorial impartiality. Kaplan claims in his introduction to be interested in the ability of spirit photography to 'construct meaning and value as well as to provoke controversy'; he argues that this 'does not involve affirming or debunking the truth claims of spirit photography…' (4). But the romantic account,,,a twenty-first century ghost story,,,hovers in the background, like the spectre on the cover of the book.

The book itself is written in the wake of a successful exhibition of Mumler's photographs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and seems to be deliberately structured like a series of museum exhibits. The pictures from Mumler's photographic practice are labelled and cross-referenced within source material that is quoted at length. There are engravings done in imitation of Mumler's work (86), (154); an example of political satire, with photographic material provided by Mumler (66); and, fake spirit photographs compiled by the appropriatetly-named Abraham Bogardus in order to give the lie to real spirit photographs (196).

The Spirits themselves in Mumler's photograph, for all their artificiality, seem to have a will of their own. They are seen strumming the instruments held by their living relatives (190), showering spectral flowers on their shoulders (Plate 3), or leaning on the lap of their estranged mother in prayer (88). Subjects appear accompanied with spirits who may never to have lived in the first place; medium Fanny Conant appears in the company of her favourite spirit, ' Vashti', an Indian child,,,sure enough, bearing feathers about her head (111). In several disturbing pictures, spirits appear bearing the photograph of a living person, rather than that living person themselves; it is as if they have become more substantial than the living, more real than reality (41 & 148). And indeed, Mumler and his clients are really interested in the spirits, the real subject of the photographs; paradoxically, the presence of dead people give life to otherwise dull nineteenth-century portraits.

What did people see in the Spirit photographs? Largely, they saw what they wanted to see, and pointed out to others what they wanted to be seen. A mother recognises a dead child by the length of his ears (151). Mumler claims to take a spirit portrait of one gallery owner and find the devil's hoof hanging over the man's head (85 - 87). P.T. Barnum, meanwhile, relates the story of a sister of a Civil War soldier who, assuming her brother to be dead, goes to a spirit photographer—probably Mumler, though he is not identified as such in Barnum's book,,,for a portrait. The photographer complies, and when she later discovers that her brother is still living, "she simply remarked that some evil spirit had assumed her brother's form in order to deceive her (67).

Appropriately, in these accounts of a man who claimed to be able to photograph ghosts who were beyond life, larger-than-life figures such as P.T. Barnum should appear. In newspaper transcripts of Mumler's court case, both Abraham Bogardus and Barnum give eloquent testimony, the first objecting that one Spirit portrait is a transparent lie, the shadow on the sitter being on one side, and the shadow on the Spirit being on the other" (193). Of course, if normally invisible Spirits can be seen in photographs, one can only assume they will have shadows!

Barnum, meanwhile, encounters rigorous cross-examination in the court on some of his own show-business claims:

I have never been in any humbug business, where I did not give value for the money; these spirit photographs were labelled humbug on the walls of my Museum; the woolly horse was a remarkable reality and curiosity; it was exactly what I represented it to be, having a peculiar form and curled hair; it was exactly a woolly horse; it was not a horse woolled over; the horse was born exactly as he was when exhibited in my Museum, and there was nothing artificial about him (195).

What is the difference between Barnum's flamboyant showmanship and Mumler's business? Barnum seems to have exaggerated the truth deliberately, to have created a fiction for the audience while pointing out that it was a fiction; perhaps Mumler lacked this self-awareness.

It does seem a pity that Kaplan does not really reflect more on how the Mumler photographs were made. It does not harm Mumler's career now, almost 150-years on, to point out that he was faking it. That small caveat aside, this is an entertaining and instructive compilation of material relating to the Mumler case.

His brush with the law took its toll, both to his reputation and to his finances. Mumler never recovered from the $3000 cost of his defense, a staggering sum for its day. He destroyed all of his negatives shortly before his death in 1884.

The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer

by Louis Kaplan
University of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816651573
288pp US$24.95


Source   http://reviews.media-culture.org.au/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=3124


In the spring of 1869, William Mumler appeared before Justice John Dowling in the Court of Special Sessions at the Tombs Police Court in New York for a preliminary hearing on an unusual charge. Mumler had been accused of fraud and larceny for making and selling photographs that purported to bring back the spirits of the dead on glass plate negatives. This sensational and highly publicized case put the religious movement of Spiritualism and its belief in communication with the dead itself on trial. "Documenting Ghosts" will review the contrary claims that were made about what these ghostly photographs documented and proved, whether deemed to be darkroom tricks and manipulations or Spiritualist proofs and images made by supernatural means.


Unknown sitter

Some Photographs by William H Mumler of Boston, then New York, USA.


When William Mumler was a accused of fraud, a hoax photograph was paid for by P. T. Barnum [in the picture] the showman and committed Christian, it was produced by his hired professional photographer, Abraham Bogardus. Barnum paid for the best legal minds available as he had the money to do so and made sure he was there at the trail of William Mumler and produced himself, the photographer and the photograph, to bring him popularity and publicity, using it all to the best of his ability at the trail of William Mumler April 1869 to discredit him, Barnum NEVER attended any sittings at which Mumler produced his Spirit extras on the photographic plates. [William Mumler was not a wealthy man by any means, he was doomed from the start].
In 1891 Alfred Russell Wallace, the co-developer of the theory of evolution, threw his hat into the ring by declaring that Spirit Photography should be studied more closely and done so scientifically, as he had been studying it over a number of years, and had come to the conclusion that not all his finding could be put down as hoaxes. Just because some were, did not mean that they all were and his findings could not be dismissed.
Despite of his open comments the Spiritualist community kept their Spirit Photography away from the public gaze for many years. But during that time different photographs of some note crept out into the public arena, some of them could not be explained away even by the skeptics.


A quote from Hon. Moses A. Dow who is seated in the photograph with the Spirit extra of his wife taken by William H. Mumler

The picture presents me as sitting upright in a chair, with my legs crossed. My hands lie on my lap, with the fingers locked together. Mabel stands partially behind my right shoulder, dressed in a white, well-fitting robe. Her hair is combed back, and her head is encircled by a wreath of white lilies. Her head inclines forward so as to lay her cheek on my right temple, from which my hair is always parted. Her right hand passes over my left arm, and clasps my hand. Her left hand is seen on my left shoulder, and between the thumb and forefinger of this hand is held an opening moss rosebud, the exact counterpart of the one that I placed there while she lay in the casket, at her funeral. Her head partially covers my forehead, showing that my picture was not taken on a previously prepared


Photograph by William H Mumler is of the Medium Mrs Fannie Conant of the magazine the Banner of Light. The Spirit extra is her brother Charles H Crowell 1868. The Banner of Light was a Spiritual Philosophy newspaper that had all manner of articles ranging from lectures of trance and non trance Spiritualist speakers and reports from eminent scientists of tests conducted on Mediums of the day and mediumistic happenings.  The Message Department of the magazine was described as "a page of Spirit-Messages from the departed to their friends in earth-life, given through the mediumship of Mrs. J. H. Conant, providing direct spirit-intercourse between the Mundane and Super-Mundane Worlds."

Fanny Conant wrote the book, Flashes of Light from the Spirit-World which is a 400-page compilation of questions answered by the Spirits through her Mediumship. The is another book you might want to try and get hold of; The Biography of Mrs. Conant, subtitled Immortality Demonstrated Through Her Mediumship, was published in Boston by W. White in 1873.


This photograph by William H Mumler is of Mrs French from Boston USA with the Spirit extra of her Son,1868.

Some accused Mumler of fraud YET it was said that the two eminent photographers of the day: James W. Black of Boston and Jeremiah Gurney of New York. According to Mumler's 1875 memoir, Black challenged Mumler to take his spirit photograph, and to allow him to examine the entire process. If a Spirit Form was produced, Black would pay Mumler fifty dollars. Mumler accepted the challenge and says when the Spirit of a man appeared beside Black s figure on the negative, "Mr. B., watching with wonder-stricken eyes this development, exclaimed: "My God! Is it possible?"

Gurney, called to investigate Mumler by the New York Sun, later testified that he witnessed Mumler preparing and taking his portrait but did not discover any deception; "in developing the negative," Gurney testified, "I applied the chemicals myself, and upon the negative was a shadowy form."


Photograph by William H Mumler taken of an unknown sitter with two Spirit extras, 1870. USA.

This image is of a normal person who would have come off the streets of Boston into the Mumler studio and the photograph had no celebrity or well known personality impressed on it just the loved ones of the private person, who was one of the many thousands who flocked to the studio to hopefully have superimposed by the Spirit World their own relative or deceased friend on their personal photograph.


Photograph by William H Mumler taken of Captain R Montgomery with his Spirit daughter, 1870. USA.

 The back of the card shows the subject is "Captain Montgomery". From the Kaplan book we also learned that the subject is Captain R. Montgomery of Hodgsdon Mills, Maine. The girl holding the flower to his face is said to be a likeness of his dead daughter. He sat for another Mumler portrait in which he received a likeness of his mother.

People are researching Captain Montgomery and hope to add more information about him. Hodgsdon Mills does not appear to be a current town in Maine but they have found a reference to a Captain Robert Montgomery who died in 1882 and was buried in Boothbay, Maine.



William H Mumler photographs in the Harpers Weekly. May 8, 1859. USA. 


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