Geraldine Cummins,

 Medium Geraldine Cummins    Ireland

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 Geraldine Cummins Medium


Medium, channel, and Spiritualist author. Cummins was born January 24, 1890 in Cork, Ireland, the daughter of Prof. Ashley Cummins. She had a modest education yet was well travelled. The development of her mediumship began in December 1923 in sittings with Miss E. B. Gibbes. Ordinarily her work of composition was very slow, but her automatic writing speed was remarkable. On March 16, 1926, for example, she channeled 1,750 words in one hour and five minutes.

Gibbes described the method employed by Cummins. She would sit at a table, cover her eyes with her left and hand on concentrate on "stillness." She would then fall into a light trance or dream state. Her hand would then begin to write. Usually, her "control" would make some introductory remarks and announce that another entity was waiting to speak. Because of her semi-trance condition and also because of the speed at which the writing would come, Gibbes would sit beside her and remove each sheet of paper as it was filled. Cummins' hand was quickly lifted by Gibbes to the top of the new page, and the writing would continue without break. In one sitting, Gibbes stated, Cummins wrote 2,000 words in 75 minutes, whereas her normal compositions were laboriously put together, perhaps 800 words in seven or eight hours.

Gibbes added that she witnessed the writing of about 50 different personalities, all claiming to be "dead," all differing in character and style, coming through Cummins' hand.

Her first books, beginning with The Spirits of Cleophas (1928), claimed to supplement the biblical books of the Acts of the Apostles and the epistles of St. Paul. It was a historic narrative of the early church and the work of the apostles from immediately after the death of Jesus to St. Paul's departure from Berea for Athens.

In the production of the first two sections of the book, Cummins was associated with F. Bligh Bond, but she received the scripts independently afterward. In her second volume, Paul in Athens (1930), the narrative is taken up and continued. The third, The Great Days of Ephesus (1933), followed the same line of thought.

The production of these automatic scripts was witnessed by several theologians, and the scholars who edited her books endorsed their intrinsic merit. They offered new interpretations of several obscure passages in the Acts of the Apostles, apparently showing close acquaintance with the early church and that age. For example, it was claimed that only a profound student could have given the head of the Jewish community in Antioch the title "Archon," because the usual title was "ethnarch" not long before the time referred to in the chronicle of Cleophas. Cleophas was not the immediate agent in the production of the scripts. They came through "the messenger." A total of seven scribes were said to be guided by Cleophas. The chronicle stated that it had been used in the early church but the existing few copies had perished. A more skeptical approach was adopted by Rodger I. Anderson, who examined Cummins's work in an article for Theta in 1983.

Cummins's fourth book, The Road to Immortality (1932), a series of communications purportedly from F. W. H. Myers, gives a stupendous vision of the progression of the human spirit through eternity. Sir Oliver Lodge offered his observations of Cummins's genuineness in the book's preface: "I believe this to be a genuine attempt to convey approximately true ideas, through an amanuensis of reasonable education, characterized by ready willingness for devoted service, and of transparent honesty."

Cummins wrote a detailed study of her automatic scripts received from the deceased "Mrs. Willett" (pseudonym of Winifred Coombe-Tennant) in the Swan on a Black Sea; a Study in Automatic Writing; the Cummins-Willett Scripts (1970). This highly regarded work contains a foreword by parapsychologist Professor C. D. Broad. Cummins also wrote The Fate of Colonel Fawcett (1955), dealing with psychically acquired information about the fate of the famous missing explorer, and worked with doctors on a project to heal neurotic patients through extrasensory exploration of the subconscious mind. Her book Unseen Adventures (1951) contains autobiographical material. Cummins died on August 24, 1969.


Anderson, R. I. "The Mediumship of Geraldine Cummins." Theta 11, 3 (Autumn 1983).

Connell, R., and Geraldine Cummins. Perceptive Healing. London: Psychic Book Club. 1945.

Cummins, Geraldine. Beyond Human Personality. London: Psychic Press, 1935. Revised edition, 1952.

The Fate of Colonel Fawcett. London, 1955.

The Road to Immortality. London: Ivor Nicholson & Watson, 1933.

Swan on a Black Sea: a Study in Automatic Writing: the Cummins-Willett Scripts. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1970.

Travelers in Eternity. Compiled by E. B. Gibbs. London: Psychic Press, 1984.

Unseen Adventures. London: Rider, 1951.

Heywood, Rosalind. "Notes on the Mediumship of Geraldine Cummins." Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 45, 746 (December 1970).





The Experiences and Accounts of Mediums and Sensitives. from quakerfellowshipforafterlifestudies

Since the beginning of the modern period of interest in psychic matters and survival in the middle of the nineteenth century, there have been many gifted people - usually called mediums or sensitives - who have offered their services to help those seeking information about these subjects. Either to gain knowledge about, and communication with, those members of their families who have died; or to further the cause of psychic research so that humanity can gain a greater understanding about the purpose of life and their place in the universe. Many of these individuals have written auto- biographical accounts of their activities or have had books written about their lives as sensitives.

Mediums are usually divided into two groups, 'mental' and 'physical' mediums. Mental mediums operate through extra-sensory perception (ESP), a heightened degree of awareness of the spiritual world, in that they seek to communicate with discarnate spirits through clairvoyance (inner sight) or clairaudience (inner hearing). Another manifestation of mental mediumship is that of 'automatic writing', where communications from the other side are transmitted through the hand-writing of the medium - normally in a script totally unlike that of the individual sensitive. Physical mediums are those who demonstrate psycho-kinetic (PK) phenomena; the ability to produce raps and similar noises, the levitation or movement of objects (often heavy furniture), moving lights, touches by seemingly 'ghostly' hands, and apports (the production of objects apparently out of nowhere). 'Direct voice' is a form of physical mediumship where the voices of spirit communicators are produced, not directly from the medium but from close by. Materialisation mediums are those who, by production of the substance ectoplasm, are able to build up semblances of the dead which - in the best examples - have appeared in a form identical to their original living counterparts (and often recognised as such by their bereaved relatives). Mediums may operate in full consciousness or in trance; in the latter state they are temporarily taken over by a spirit 'control' or 'guide', or by other entities introduced by the control.

The following section consists of a list of the books giving accounts of the work of a selection of the better-known sensitives particularly of the mid and later twentieth century.

Geraldine Cummins was an author and playwright who was also a medium with a remarkable gift for automatic writing. Of the 22 books she wrote 15 were ‘transmitted’ or produced by automatic writing. Amongst many other writings, she produced a series of scripts purporting to come from F.W.H. Myers, one of the distinguished scholars who founded the Society for Psychical Research in 1882 and who, after his death in 1901, was the instigator of the "cross-correspondences" which provided much evidence in favour of survival. The present material gives a wide-ranging description of the conditions after death and many other details, particularly how the soul may progress up through ever higher spiritual levels or ‘planes’. Miss Cummins produced two sets of material from Myers, during the 1920s and in 1933-4, and these were published as two books:

Cummins, Geraldine (1932). The Road to Immortality. Being a description of the after-life purporting to be communicated by the late F.W.H. Myers through Geraldine Cummins. Foreword by Sir Oliver Lodge. With evidence of the survival of human personality by E.B. Gibbes. Ivor Nicholson & Watson, London.

        (Republished 1955 by the Aquarian Press, London).

One particularly useful part of this book is the foreword in which Sir Oliver Lodge confirms, through an independent channel, that Myers' scripts were "... a serious attempt to give information about a future life and the stages through which earnest people may expect to pass."

Cummins, Geraldine (1935). Beyond Human Personality. Being a detailed description of the future life purporting to be communicated by the late F.W.H. Myers. Containing an account of the gradual development of the human personality into cosmic personality. Ivor Nicholson & Watson, London.

Amongst other books Miss Cummins also wrote:


Cummins, Geraldine (1951). Unseen Adventures. An autobiography covering thirty-four years of work in psychical research. Rider, London.

Cummins, Geraldine (1965). Swan on a Black Sea.  A study in automatic writing: The Cummins-Willett scripts.  Edited by Signe Toksvig. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

After Pentecost; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Beyond Human Personality; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Childhood of Jesus; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Great Days of Ephesus; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Manhood of Jesus: His early adult years, His Trial and Crucifixion; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

I Appeal unto Ceasar; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Mind in Life and Death; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Paul in Athens; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

The Road to Immortality; being a description of the afterlife purporting to be communicated by the late F. W. H. Myers; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

The Scripts of Cleophas; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

Travellers in Eternity; 1948; being some descriptions of life after death with evidence; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)

When Nero was Dictator; Geraldine Cummins; Hardcover; (Out of Print)


Mrs. Willett was the pseudonym of Mrs. Winifred Coombe Tennant who, during her lifetime, had been a gifted medium and automatic writer. Together with several other sensitives, she had been the vehicle for communications of a most remarkable kind, the Cross Correpondences (see p. 20 above), which apparently came from the surviving Spirits of W.F.H. Myers, Edmund Gurney and other early members of the Society for Psychical Research. Mrs. Coombe Tennant died in August 1956 and about a year later she began to communicate through the automatic writing of Geraldine Cummins. Over a period of two and a half years a series of 40 scripts were produced containing material of considerable evidential importance.

The book consists of a very long (50 page) Foreword by Prof. C. D. Broad which contains, among other things, a lengthy synopsis of the main contents of the scripts and a critical analysis of their content. Then follow the scripts themselves and two short descriptive pieces by Geraldine Cummins, 'Personal Background' and 'Lines of Communication'. The value of this book is summarised in the following review:

"What is quite certain is that this is a very important book indeed, and one which should be obligatory reading for all of the many of us who cannot yet bring ourselves to believe that human beings experience anything at all after the death of their bodies. Whatsoever our preconceptions may be, these scripts provide something solid and incontrovertible which cannot be explained away with the usual facility of the naturally incredulous" (Philip Toynbee, in The Observer).



 Mackenzie King - Canadian Premier


When visiting London, England, to attend the Imperial Conference in 1926, he met with Sir Oliver Lodge and recorded Lodge's comments on the ordering of human lives by Spirit Beings, and the need for faith on the part both of Mediums and sitters.

In 1931 King visited Detroit to attend a seance held by the American Medium Henrietta (Etta) Wriedt (1859-1942). The following year, King was invited to the Brockville home of Mrs. Fulford, the widow of a Canadian senator, where he experienced the direct voice mediumship of Mrs Wriedt, who would become his favourite Medium. Throughout the rest of this decade King travelled frequently to Detroit to attend additional seances, and upon occasion Mrs Wriedt visited Ottawa.

In 1933 he met medical doctor Thomas Glendinning Hamilton at his Winnipeg residence where they discussed the Hamiltons' psychical research experiments; the next year he pursued new contacts in England. Among other individuals he spoke with Lady Aberdeen, whose husband had been Governor-General of Canada from 1893-98. She told King that she had received evidence through automatic writing of the continued existence of her recently deceased husband; and King revealed to her in turn that he had contacted Lord Aberdeen himself through table rappings. Spending time in England again in 1936, after a trip to the League of Nations in Geneva, he visited the London Spiritualist Alliance.

Following a seance in 1933 attended by Dominion Archivist Sir Arthur George Doughty (1860-1936), King and his close friend Joan Patteson (1869-1960) took up the practice of table-rapping at their residences in Ottawa. They claimed to receive frequent messages from King’s mother, his brother Max, and former Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier (1841-1919).

In the 1940s King continued to consult Mediums in England, among them Lillian Bailey (1895-1971) and Hester (Travers-Smith) Dowden (1868-1949). In 1945 the London Spiritualist Alliance arranged sittings for him with Mrs. Dowden, who practiced automatic writing, and Gladys Osborne Leonard (1882-1968).

Two years later the organization put him in contact with additional mediums including a Mrs. Sharplin and Miss Geraldine Cummins (1890-1969). During his final visit to London in 1948, once again he met with Mrs. Leonard and Miss Cummins.

In addition to his regular attempts to obtain Spirit communication, King had been interested in other aspects of the occult since at least 1918, including interpretation of dreams, numerology, the meaning of coincidences and the reading of tea leaves.

During his lifetime, King"s spiritualist beliefs were known only to his close friends and immediate colleagues. For the most part he wanted his pursuits to remain private and stayed away from association with organized groups. The professional mediums he consulted guarded his privacy closely.

Not long after King"s death on 22 July 1950 at "Kingsmere," his country estate in Quebec, his beliefs became known when the Psychic News published a letter telling of the late Prime Minister’s interest in Spiritualism. The story was picked up by Maclean's Magazine in December 1951, then by Canadian newspapers. Attention focused often on the extent to which he might have relied upon messages from the spirit realm to direct his decisions.


In her Unseen Adventures (1951), Geraldine Cummins describes sittings that she held for a British Commonwealth statesman, who was most assuredly Mr. King. In their initial meeting, his identity had been concealed from her. Cummins was impressed by her visitor’s "realistic and critical analysis of evidence presented by other psychic experiments. He was far too intelligent to be credulous, and his observations on the subject were to me very instructive." Two years later, following a second sitting that warned about potential troubles in Asia, the statesman had said that "he made it a rule to ignore advice thus given: he trusted solely to his own and his advisers’ judgment."

King’s voluminous personal papers were acquired by Library and Archives Canada. Unfortunately, in 1977, his literary executors made the decision to burn the notebooks in which mediums had apparently recorded their impressions in response to questions King had asked.

The remaining records about his Spiritualist activities were closed and only opened to researchers in 2001, a full 50 years after his death.

Through experience, King had discovered that attempts to predict the future by asking for counsel from Spirits were rarely productive; he understood that seances were not to be used for fortune-telling.

Thanks to the Survival Research Institute of Canada for the above extracts.

Post by zerdini on Fri Jun 26, 2009 2:23 am


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