medium Teofil Modrzejewski, Teofil Modrzejewski medium, Teofil Modrzejewski, Franek Kluski medium, medium Franek Kluski, Franek Kluski, physical medium,
Medium Teofil Modrzejewski
pseudonym Medium Franek Kluski. Poland
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Teofil Modrzejewski pseudonym Franek Kluski
Franek Kluski was born in a comfortably well off family in Warsaw.
Franek's father had the same gifts but never sat in seance situations. His uncle was a catholic priest and was said to have clairvoyant visions. Franek was a sickly child after having measles, scarletina, smallpox and typhoid fever then as if to to round them all off he caught pneumonia.
At five or six he started seeing Spirit in physical formation so was not at all afraid of the Spirit World, he found the Spirit friends welcoming and kind with him. When little he use to hide under the covers on a chair and when asked by his parents what he was doing he said, "I am staying here with my mole", even though he had never seen a mole; his friend were very jealous of him because of his mole friend. It was said of him he was always looking as though he was in a dreamy like state, wanting his own company and staying in the quietness and contemplative solitude away from his peers. Franek possessed the ability to see forthcoming events. In later life, he is described as well educated and spoke different languages.
This is only a small part of Franek's own account of what happened to him when he was growing up.
During the day the little boy stayed in a corner, sleeping or lying on his back, with an abstract look. In the evening when the lamps were lit he became animated. In the room where his parents sat he use to take two chairs. He covered them with a shawl, and crept into this improvised tent with a book, although he could not read. He kept very still and when his parents asked him what he was doing he would always answer he was going to see "the mole". His mother said " do you even know what a mole is"? " How can you see a mole in the middle of town"?
His play fellows envied his seeing a mole, for the children never doubted his words.
One day his parents had gone out, and he was playing with other children, he made a larger tent than usual. with chairs and a big coverlet, he invited other children, their little nursemaid, and his younger sister to 'come and see the mole'.
Outside it was freezing hard, the room was heated by a large porcelain stove, which then gave out a sharp crackling sounds. The nursemaid, thinking the stove was overheating, wanted to open the door, but as the crackling became louder she was afraid and remained still. The children, too, were afraid to move. The boy then rose and went out of the tent towards the stove. At that moment the lamp went out, and from out of the door of the stove the came a blue mist, which surrounded the boy as it floated out into the room. The children cried out in fear, but the little boy told them not to be afraid, it was just the mole coming. He got them all together under the tent to tell them a story of the mole. His voice changed. It is said "the road to the mole is a very long one; it goes through a long dark passage, one must wait until the darkness passes; it then become brighter". He said that when children died they are buried because they can get at the mole more easily. He advised the children to be very quiet and good, so as to get to the mole without frightening it. The children agreed to stay quiet, and to do this better they joined hands. There was in the room a small clock, which sounded the hour if you pulled a string. There was no one near the clock, which sounded continuously. The little boy said it is like that when you are going to see the mole. They heard the sound of light footsteps in the room and thought the cat had got in, but the little boy told them it was the mole who was coming.
Although the room was in darkness, inside the tent it was lit with a dim light, and the children saw, to their amazement, a little brother and sister who had died. They understood that these were going to the kingdom of the mole, and were more amazed than afraid.
The figures of the children faded little by little, and the children begged the little boy to go on with the journey to the mole. He told them it was impossible, but showed them a small luminous fissure, and told them to look through it. Before their eyes unrolled a number of rooms and passages, lit as with gems. The rooms were filled with human forms, transparent and bright, floating in the air. The children looked on in admiration, and each wondered "Am I here for the first time".
"The nursemaid acted strangely; she kissed the cheeks of the boy, kissed his hands, and pressed him to her heart as though she would not let him go."
But the landscapes being shown began to fade and a gust of wind seemed to blow away the rooms and the people, and then they all vanished.
Noises were heard in the house, the dog barked, and this parent returned from the theatre. The children rushed out of the tent to their parents, shouting that they had been to see the mole, which was disastrous for the nursemaid as the children were up so late. The nursemaid got a scolding, the hero of the seance got a good few slaps, and they were all sent to bed. The little boy did not care, he knew as soon as they were all in bed and the house was quiet, he could return to the mole.
Whilst he was still young he experienced OBE's (Out of Body Experiences), saw deceased relatives and a great variety of animals, going to where they were.
As he grew up, he was taught different languages, became a Banker, writer and poet. He also participated in a duel at the age of 27, in which he was said to be hurt.
It was in 1918 after a seance with Jean Guzik, that Franek Kluski now 45 started being recognized by the general public as a talented Medium even though the Spirit World had been with him since very young.. [I saw a write up from some mis-informed person on the internet, who said he only had a short time with his Mediumship and put it down as 7 years because they could not find any information on Franek. He was a natural Medium, who was Mediumistic from day one seeing Spirit when small]. The recognition of his amazing seances started to gradually filter out into the public domain in the 1900's. The Society for Psychical Research has a lot more information on Franek Kluski.
In later life he gained fame with the materialization of the spiritual beings being produced. They were reported "to be the hand and the face of a being; the spiritual hairy being, homo erectus" (woskowy press). The Spirit World produced through Franek a spiritual bird something like an European Nightjar also a lion like creature which would walk around the table, a dog on occasions appeared and placed itself on the lap of a sitter and lick the other sitters as would the hairy humanoid. The humanoid creature would sometimes when asked, lift the heavy library sofa above the heads of the sitters, a very heavy bronze statue was lifted above the heads of the sitters and taken around the seance at height. All this was witnessed by amongst others a well-known Polish writer Tadeusz Boy-Zelenski.. At one seance it is reported the humanoid grabbed a lady sitter's hand and placed it against its face, which caused the lady to shriek with the shock. Many of the Kluski seances had to be brought to an end because of the rather rough nature of this humanoid with the sitters.
There were many people from different walks of life who attended his seances. Over the years it is said that many thousands must have attended his seances over the years he demonstrated his gifts. There were professional magicians, people from the military, parapsychologists, professors, many academics of different levels, people from the churches, and ordinary folk from the surrounding areas.
Over the time he demonstrated public seances which were done in many different places, the lighting was not always constant and regimented. It was sometimes with a red light, and sometimes in darkness and luminous plaque. Many times the Spirit World would make their own light in the darker seances, so the sitters could see the formation of the materialized people. It is documented that hundreds of Spirit People came through Franek and were recognized by the sitters as loved ones, friends and relatives, animals and birds, who had long been what we call dead. They would begin to form as a smoky haze, then gradually build up into a shape as they became more visible until every recognizable formation of the person was there for all the sitters to see. It is documented that there were at times not just one person but many wondering around the room, at other times in other seances there were many more who's presence was felt as an impression of the Spirit People there with the sitters. Another instance is documented when it is said "Great numbers of them [Spirit People] appeared virtually simultaneously"
Prof. F. W. Pawlowski wrote how the apparitions sometimes appeared at some distance from Kluski. In his observations he noted some Spirit formations walked around like they would normally on the earth plane, they would walk around the room and smile at the sitters, if they did not recognize anyone there they would go up to them and study them intently, other Spirit People that appeared in the seance would fly above the sitters' heads. Those Spirit People who could speak did so in his/her own language. Some Spirits at times, could read the sitters' minds as they responded to what a sitter was thinking before anything was said. Some chose to communicate by raps, but the voices of those who did speak were reported to have been; perfectly clear and normally loud, but with a sound like a loud whisper.
Kluski was a very important Medium in as much as to lay to rest the idea that animals do not survive death, and do not go onto the Higher vibration level as humans do. He is recorded as the Spirit World through him producing a Spirit Person with their animal friend and as soon as the Spirit Person left, so did his/her animal companion. This is one definite proof that all animals carry on to the higher levels of the Spirit World.
In a red light seance, a hawk-like bird, [an apport] which was photographed, flew around the room with its wings beating against the walls, and a lion type of animal walked around the seance room with his tail swishing against the furniture and licking the sitters, and when it left, there was an acrid smell of the beast. [or could it have been the ectoplasm smell].
Franek was accomplished Automatic Writing Medium with the help of the Spirit World. It is said he walked around with strange smells and lights being emitted from him. The needle of a compass would go erratic when he was near. Spirit produced apparitions in daylight near him even when he was not in a seance situation. Tests showed there was always a drop in temperature when Kluski was present.
There are many reports of lights going around the seance room very fast, different smells being produced, loud knocks and raps being heard, at times Kluski was apported from the locked seance room to a different location where he was later found asleep. Again reported, he was many times seen in a different location from the one he was actually in. The Spirit World very often use to visit him during the night in his room, walking around and making their presence known by making a noise then illuminating themselves so they could be seen by him.
Franek Kluski is well known for his moulds of Spirit Peoples' hands and feet when asked to do so. These moulds were made by the Spirit World by putting their hand or foot in a bath [bowl] of molten paraffin wax a few times so the fine details of the persons body parts were made, generally of the extremities of their limb up to the small part of the foot [ankle] or hand [wrist] were set in the time harden wax., this proved to all who attended the seance and in the outside world that materialization had taken place, also it should be pointed out there must have been dematerialization to get out of the narrow space of the ankle or wrist, without damage of that narrow part of the wax cast.
One strange thing happened in tests with Kluski, while he was in trance and restrained by Prof. Charles Richet and Dr Gustave Geley, they were holding his hands whilst sitting either side of the Medium. Unknown to Kluski the experimenters had put into the molten wax some soluble cholesterin so they could find out if any fraud was taking place. [a chemical reaction to form a coloured violet-red stain happens when sulphuric acid is introduced to the paraffin wax mould or where ever it touches]. With both Doctors sitting at either side, and holding onto Kluski during the whole of the experimental seance, moulds were again produced by the Spirit World. The wax mouldings at the end of the seance, turned out to be a young child's foot and their hand. Professor Richet recorded it and said it was a total mystery because they could not figure it out as they were holding the Medium's hand throughout, only to say it was not in any way done by the Medium himself because of the fact, the both of them had restrained him.
At a wide variety of seances in many different locations and circumstances Franek Kluski still produced materialization. Like other Mediums of the time he was subjected to conducting a seance in the nude or in a brightly lit venue. Quite often as happens in many other seances with other Physical Mediums, the Spirit Entities used their own for of illumination to show themselves, or they used the luminous plaque by holding it up towards themselves to show the sitters that they were there in the seance.
In the The Mediumship of Franek Kluski of Warsaw, by F. W. Pawlowski, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1925, he says "the light from the plaque is so good that I could see the pores and the down on the skin of their faces and hands". "One frequent visitor not only provided enough light to ensure that he could be seen, but this also illuminated the sitters and much of the seance room".
The health of the Medium took its toll on the phenomena at times, if he was not well, the phenomena and the materializations were weak and small in stature. Inclement weather also played its part in the form of storms and if there was thunder and lightening around, the phenomena would be adversely effected.
Like most Mediums who go through the trauma of physical phenomena Franek Kluski ended up exhausted after the seances and did not sleep very good after them. BUT most remarkable is the fact being reported of him vomiting blood. [This I feel was because the sitters were not taking care of Franek himself, while in the state of trance producing physical phenomena and interruptions in the Mediumship while producing ectoplasm. If ectoplasm is drawn back into the Medium after a sudden shock, or sudden noise in the seance, it is known that is can cause internal bleeding, as happened in the last seance of Helen Duncan which sadly killed her].
When in trance Frank Kluski was able to allow Spirit the use of his body for the production of luminous happening to his hands and body as though they were transparent. This happened in test conditions with a Dr Gustave Geley [French researcher]
More information about Franek Kluski can be found in the following.
Dr Gustave Geley took part in Kluski's seances at the Paris Institut Metapsychique International, also in Warsaw,
Thirty Years of Psychical Research by Charles Richet, Collins Sons, London. 1923.
Clairvoyance and Materialisation, by Gustave Geley, trans. by Stanley De Brath, Fisher Unwin, London. 1927,
Mediums and the Afterlife, by Linda Williamson, Robert Hale, London. 1992.
The Enigma of Franek Kluski, by Zofia Weaver, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 1992.
'Kluski and Geley: Further Case for the Defence', by Mary Rose Barrington, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 1994.
The Mediumship of Franek Kluski of Warsaw, by F. W. Pawlowski, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1925.
When Your Animal Dies by Sylvia Barbanell, Spiritualist Press, London. 1940.
The Strange Case of Rudi Schneider by Anita Gregory, Scarecrow Press, New Jersey 1985.
Through the Mediumship of Franek Kluski, the Spirit World produced a duplicate impression of Spirit hand in a wax mould. This photograph is showing the finished plaster model. It should be pointed out here that this formation would be nigh impossible to replicate by a human hand because of the way the digits are placed, they could not be withdrawn and leave the wax mould in perfect placement. Note also the narrow part of the wrist and the size of the fist.
This was done in the seance by having a bowl of hot molten wax in the room and the Spirit Entity would dip their hand in the hot wax a number of times whilst materialised hand [this on many documented occasions was only the hand]. The Spirit Materialisation would then dissipate into etheric or into the entranced Medium leaving the gauntlet type shape of now hardened wax which had a narrow area where the wrist would have been. Showing to the sitters that no human hand could have produced it without breaking the narrow neck at the wrist when removing the hand. There is one of these mould impressions on show in the museum in the Arthur Findlay College in Stansted Hall, Essex UK
A plaster casting of a Spirit hand made from a wax moulding in a seance with Franek Kluski
Another plaster casting of a Spirit hand made from a wax moulding in a seance with Franek Kluski. Notice in this one how narrow the wrist is compared to the hand itself, also the fingers are bent. In these positions it would be impossible to get your hand out of the wax moulding without damaging the wax mould itself.
A Spirit foot plaster cast made out of a wax mould which was
seance on the 31of December1920. A Spirit foot plaster cast made out of a wax mould which was
seance on the 31of December1920.
A Spirit foot plaster cast made out of a wax mould which was produced in a Franek Kluski seance on the 31of December1920.
A Trance Franek Kluski sitting in a cabinet. With the help of the Spirit World produced a spread winged bird perched on his shoulder. He often produced Spirit Human forms and many different types of animals. Proving that animals survive after they leave the confines of their bodies [in other words, what we know as die]. Animals live after death.
Kluski, an educated man, a banker and writer, did not attract the level of attention that was given to such Mediums as Daniel Dunglas ('D. D.') Home, Eusapia Palladino, Rudi Schneider and others. His short period of mediumship lasted only seven years; the amount of information detailing his activity is therefore limited. I am therefore indebted to the Society for Psychical Research for material regarding Kluski.
As a contemplative child, Kluski had experiences of OBEs (Out of Body Experiences), and seeing deceased relatives and animals. Relevant in view of what he would do in the future, Kluski recorded how other children, when with him, would also see those who had died.(1) However, it was not until 1918, after a seance with Jean Guzik, that Kluski's mediumistic potential was recognized and the spectacular seances began. The number of those attending ran into the hundreds and included a variety of people, e.g. professors, soldiers, professional magicians and parapsychologists; these undoubtedly witnessed what must have been some of the most evidential demonstrations of life continuing after death. Those attending 'were not the "usual crowd", but were totally random and very numerous', and 'the testimony left by many of these people is...an encounter with a magical world, that could not possibly be achieved using pathetic little tricks and sleight-of-hand'.(2)
During the period of Kluski's mediumship, the seances were conducted at different locations, and a lighted environment was sometimes present by means of a red lamp and a luminous plaque. There were over eight hundred occurrences of visitants, with sitters recognizing some of these as people who had died: 'They would start out as a kind of haze, and gradually take shape and become more visible, with greater detail, such as wrinkles and facial hair'...Great numbers of them appeared virtually simultaneously, and often there would be an impression of other presences'.(3) Prof. F. W. Pawlowski noted how the apparitions appeared at some distance from Kluski, and while some walked around normally, others would fly above the sitters' heads. Those who could speak did so in his/her own language, and it appeared that they could read the sitters' minds as they responded to what a sitter was thinking before anything was said. Some chose to communicate by raps, but the voices of those who did speak were reported to have been 'perfectly clear and normally loud, but sound like a loud whisper'.(4)
Kluski is also important to Spiritualist belief as he dealt a death-blow to Christian anthropocentrism (that, illogically, teaches only human beings survive death), as his seances enjoyed the presence of animals returning. Sylvia Barbanell cited Pawlowski's testimony that sitters experienced the materialization of various types of animals; he recorded an instance of a dog materializing and jumping upon the laps of the sitters, and in a seance with a red lamp, a hawk-like bird flew around, with its wings beating against the walls: this occasion was photographed. Validating a further feature of Spiritualist belief, i.e. that bonds of affection are not broken by death, when certain persons materialized in the Kluski seances, they would be accompanied by an animal that left as soon as their human companion departed. The significant feature, as Mrs Barbanell observed, is that the Kluski seances demonstrated that all, rather than some animals survive death.(5)
One materialization brought an animal that resembled a lion that would lick the sitters: this 'would stalk around, lashing its tail against the furniture and leaving behind it a strong acrid smell'.(6) Another visitor, referred to as the Pithecanthropus, was clearly intent on making his presence known to the sitters: an ape-type being, it moved the furniture and behaved 'rather roughly with regard to the sitters, trying to lick their hands or faces'; often the seance had to be prematurely ended when it became over- enthusiastic. Pawlowski related how it grabbed one woman's hand to rub this against its face, and 'this frightened her considerably and caused her to shriek'.(7) Those who came to the seances from 'the other side' would comply with requests to move furniture; despite being in darkness, they would do this without any obvious difficulty; one such instance was the moving of a heavy bronze statue. Kluski's seances may have been many things, but they were hardly uneventful.
Relevant due to the present popularity of the idea that
communicators are really only fragmented personalities ('psychons' or 'mindkins'),
Dr Gustave Geley, who participated in Kluski's seances at the Paris Institut
Metapsychique International, and in Warsaw, reported how 'All these phantoms
give the impression of being alive, and as normal as living people'.(8)
Pawlowski reiterates this view, adding that 'They made a round of the sitters,
smiling an acknowledgement of the familiar sitters and looking curiously at the
sitters they had not seen before'.(9)
In addition to the materializations, there was the appearance of lights swiftly moving around the room, apports and noises. Admittedly, Kluski was hardly a typical Medium: he was not only a proficient materialization Medium but adept at producing automatic writing, and deriving no financial benefit from this. He was also seen in different locations away from where he was physically situated, and was accompanied by lights and followed by noises and odours; apparitions would appear in the daylight when he was not even conducting a seance. Pawlowski mentioned how 'the apparitions' persisted in interrupting Kluski's sleep by walking around his room and going as far as illuminating themselves for his benefit. Pawlowski also referred to a report that he had 'no reason to distrust', that Kluski was not only transported to the seance room by the apparitions, but also transported from the locked room and found asleep in a another location. Furthermore, tests demonstrated there was a dramatic reduction of temperature in the seance room with Kluski present, and compass needles would move about violently when he was nearby.(10)
Kluski is better known for the moulds that were produced when materializations left an impression, these often being perfect in detail and indicated not only materialization, but dematerialization. Prof. Charles Richet and Geley conducted investigations into Kluski's mediumship in 1921, and secretly introduced soluble cholesterin into the melted paraffin wax that was present during the seance; this was to ensure that any impressions left were actually made during this time (i.e. by adding sulphuric acid, this would cause it to become violet-red and thereby identify it as the substance they had provided). Richet records how, when the seance took place, he and Geley held Kluski's hands and the researchers later found that the mould had impressions of a materialized child's hands and foot. Richet noted how experts testified to the occurrence being 'an absolute mystery', and concluded by saying that Geley's investigation into this aspect of Kluski's mediumship, 'gives irrefragable scientific demonstration of ectoplasmic materialization'. He added that as a scientist, he found the concept of such a thing being possible as 'very absurd', but adding 'Yes, it is absurd: but no matter - it is true'.(11) Would that researchers be so forthright and decisive now! There have been attempts to supply non-paranormal explanations for the many moulds produced, but I believe that people considering the subject with an objective stance would find these quite fanciful; or, as Mary Rose Barrington observes, 'scraping the barrel of speculation'.(12) For anyone wishing to consider the subject of the moulds, I would suggest the writings by Geley and Barrington (listed below).
While precautions did vary considerably, Kluski still produced materializations when strict procedures were followed, including instances when he was naked or there was a lighted environment. In fact, in some instances, the materializations provided their own light, or picked up the luminous plaque in order that the sitters could see them. Pawlowski reported how 'the light from the plaque is so good that I could see the pores and the down on the skin of their faces and hands'.(13) One frequent visitor not only provided enough light to ensure that he could be seen, but this also illuminated the sitters and much of the seance room.
The factors that seemed to diminish the quality of Kluski's mediumship did not arise through any controls imposed, but rather his health and the weather; storms appeared to cause him considerable problems. It was also observed that when Kluski was not in good health, the phenomena diminished, e.g. the materializations becoming reduced in size. After a seance, he was invariably exhausted, but also suffered from insomnia apart from the vomiting of blood. Some of his health problems can be attributed to a serious injury sustained through partici-pating in a duel at the age of twenty-seven. As stated, Kluski was hardly a typical Medium...
While some Spiritualists may be satisfied with little more than odours, touches, winds, and 'the quick shake of a tambourine', Kluski is an excellent example of the true nature of Spiritualism and mediumship - providing a link between the two planes of existence and effecting a meaningful discourse between them. It is this type of physical phenomena, the type witnessed in NAS demonstrations, that should be the sole aspiration for all Spiritualists and Survivalists. The point at issue is the need to pursue and attain communication, rather than peripheral phenomena that do not edify; in the case of Kluski, it became possible for the two worlds to be temporarily fused, and for visible and audible evidence to be supplied in abundance. Surely this is the actual purpose of Spiritualism?
It is an absolute pleasure to read through the accounts of Kluski's mediumship; he surely represents a considerable stumbling-block for non-survivalists. I suspect that this is the reason why there has been so little discussion about him by the materialists who prefer speculation and wild conjecture rather than unbiased study of the subject. But why should there be such animosity towards physical phenomena, such as that found with Kluski? Simply because, 'They are both signs and symbols of a specter that haunts the strongholds of science: the specter of the direct power of mind and imagination to transform the real world'.(14)
(1)Gustave Geley, Clairvoyance and Materialisation, trans. Stanley De Brath (London: Fisher Unwin, 1927), pp.201,203 (This has photographs of the moulds, the materializations of the hawk and Pithecanthropus). (2)Zofia Weaver, 'The Enigma of Franek Kluski', Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, (58), 1992, pp.293,294. (3)Weaver, Ibid, p.295. (4)F. W. Pawlowski, 'The Mediumship of Franek Kluski of Warsaw', Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, (19) 1925, pp.501,502. (5)Sylvia Barbanell, When Your Animal Dies (London: Spiritualist Press, 1940), pp.90,91. (6)Linda Williamson, Mediums and the Afterlife (London: Robert Hale, 1992), p.55. (7)Pawlowski, Ibid, p.487. (8)Cited by Mary Rose Barrington, 'Kluski', Psi Researcher, Winter 1993, p.9. (9)Pawlowski, Ibid, p.501. (10)Pawlowski, Ibid, pp.499,500. (11)Charles Richet, Thirty Years of Psychical Research (London: Collins Sons, 1923), pp.543-545. (12)Mary Rose Barrington, 'Kluski and Geley: Further Case for the Defence', Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, (60), 1994, p.106. (13)Pawlowski, Ibid, p.486. (14)Anita Gregory, The Strange Case of Rudi Schneider (New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1985), p.425
Source posted to me
F. W. Pawlowski, professor of aeronautical engineering at the University of Michigan, writes about his experiences with Franek Kluski in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (1925, pp. 481-504): "Bright bluish stars appear and begin to move high above the table, near the ceiling. When they approached me at a distance of about 16 inches I recognised to my great astonishment that they were human eyes looking at me. Within a few seconds such a pair of eyes develops into a complete human head, and with a hand moving a luminous palm illuminating it clearly. The hand will move around the head as if to show itself more clearly to the onlooker, the eyes looking at one intensely and the face smiling most pleasantly. I have seen a number of such heads, sometimes two at a time, moving through the air like drifting toy balloons from one sitter to another. On several occasions the apparitions appeared just behind my back, and I was aware of them from the sound of their breathing, which I could hear distinctly before they were noticed by the sitters opposite to me. When I turned around I found their faces just about a foot from me, either smiling or looking intently at me. Some of these were breathing violently as if after a strenuous run, and in these cases I felt their breath on my face. Once I listened to the heartbeat of an apparition. They conducted themselves as callers at a party. The expression of curiosity in their eyes is most appealing. I have seen a similar look only in the eyes of children at the age of the awakening of their intelligence. On one occasion I saw two of them flying high above our heads in the higher room, illuminating each other with the plaques and performing fancy evolutions. It was really a beautiful sight, something like an aerial ballet."
Born 1874 Franek Klusky died in 1949
Pseudonym of a distinguished Polish
poet and writer whose remarkable physical powers coexisted with psychic gifts.
As a child of five or six he had presentiments, visions of distant events, and
saw phantoms. He thought the phantoms natural and talked with them familiarly.
In 1919 Kluski's psychic gifts were discovered when he attended a séance with
Jan Guzyk. His talent annoyed him at first, but curiosity prevailed and he
consented to experiments. Various phases of physical phenomena developed,
culminating in materialization, during which, like Elizabeth d'Esperance,
Kluski retained consciousness.
For scientific research he placed himself readily at the disposition of the Polish Society for Psychic Research and the Institut Metapsychique of Paris, where his first sittings took place in 1920 in the presence of Charles Richet, Count de Grammont, and Gustav Geley. The paraffin casts of materialized limbs made in these séances were considered among the best objective evidence of supernormal power ever produced.
Another curious feature of Kluski's materialization seances was the appearance of animal forms, which included squirrels, dogs, cats, a lion, and a buzzard. One of the most disturbing manifestations was a large primitive creature like a huge ape or a hairy man. The face was hairy, and the creature had long, strong arms and behaved roughly to the sitters, trying to lick their hands and faces. This materialization, which Geley named "Pithecanthropus," exuded a strong odour like "a wet dog." Geley considered Kluski a universal Medium, a king among his contemporaries. He found the clairvoyance that was manifest in Kluski's automatic writing scripts almost terrifying.
The best account of Kluski's mediumship is the 1926 book (in Polish) by Col. Norbert Ocholowicz, Wspomnienia Z, Seansow Z(Medium Frankiem Kluskim).
Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991.
Geley, Gustav. Clairvoyance and Materialisation. London, 1927.
The Institut Metapsychique International (IMI) was born in 1919, in the heyday of spiritualism, with the explicit objective of conducting in-depth investigations of claims of the paranormal. The first formal studies were undertaken with Franek Kluski, a Physical Medium reputedly capable of producing detailed ectoplasmic materializations of animal or human forms.
In their investigations, the IMI researchers were above all aiming to obtaining Permanent Paranormal Objects (PPOs), i.e., objects which constitute indisputable evidence for a paranormal phenomenon. The sessions were designed by IMI director Dr. Gustave Geley, the neurophysiologist and nobel-prize winner Charles Richet, and the Count de Gramont of the Institute of France. They employed an adaptation of a method earlier introduced by Spiritualists, in which paraffin was used to obtain a wax mould from the materialized ectoplasmic forms.
The sessions were held at the institute’s laboratory, locked from within once the Medium and sitters entered. During the sessions, which took place in low red light, all sitters locked hands. Sitters on either side of Kluski gave frequent verbal reports, confirming their certitude that they are holding the Medium’s hand. Kluski himself remained immobile throughout the séance, apparently in a light or deep trance.
The main experimental material was a tank placed 60 centimeters in front of the Medium, containing a 10-cm layer of liquid wax that floated on electrically heated water. The Medium’s task was to materialize ‘ectoplasmic hands’, mentally direct these toward the liquid paraffin, plunge them into the paraffin for a minute or so, and then deposit the paraffin ‘gloves’ next to the researchers. When sessions were successful, the resulting gloves were used to create more solid plaster moulds, the wax layer being removed by dipping the moulds into boiling water. Seven moulds of hands, one of a foot and one of the lower face were produced in this manner. The hand moulds took on various positions and were child-sized, yet they exhibited detailed markings of adult hands.
Two possibilities for fraudulent production are examined : wax moulds produced by sleight of hand during the séances, and moulds prepared in advance and surreptitiously smuggled into the laboratory. Both of these appear highly implausible. The controls introduced during the sessions and the size of the moulds exclude their fraudulent real-time production. The hypothesis that they were prepared in advance is also rejected because of a control introduced by the experimenters : ‘identifier’ chemicals were secretely added to the liquid paraffin just prior to the seances, and were subsequently detected in the actual paraffin gloves. Unless one assumes widespread experimenter fraud, the conclusion seems inescapable that the Kluski wax gloves are genuinely paranormal, constituting evidence for an extraordinarily developed form of psychokinesis.
THE KLUSKI HAND MOULDS
The Institut Metapsychique International (IMI) was founded in 1919, and declared a public utility foundation that same year by the French Interior Ministry. The explicit objective of the IMI, from the outset, was to conduct in-depth investigations of claims of the paranormal, whether in Spiritualist, mesmeric or other contexts. Among its first Board members were the Italian Minister of Health Rocco Santoliquido (president), the physician Gustave Geley (director), Nobel-prize winner neurophysiologist Charles Richet (honorary president), Count de Gramont of the Institut de France (vice-president), astronomer Camille Flammarion, and other prominent figures of French society. The IMI quickly established solid links with psychical research centers throughout Europe, and began publishing the Revue Metapsychique, which became the main reference for Continental psychical research.
Among the first formal studies undertaken at the Institute were those with Franek Kluski (1874-1944), one of the most reputed and reliable physical mediums of this era. Kluski, aged 47 when the IMI investigations began, was well-educated, spoke several different languages, and, besides his professional activities, was a writer and poet. He reported having had many apparitional experiences in his childhood, particularly in cemeteries where he would take his young friends and together they would observe apparitions of his defunct parents or friends, but also apparitions of animals such as wolves, cats, and dogs. At age 27, following a duel, a bullet pierced Kluski’s heart, and he was considered dead by the surgeon. However, he miraculously came back to life, a few minutes later. As attested by an X-ray, the bullet was still present in his ribs, 20 years later, and he was prone to pain and extreme heart palpitations, especially following mediumnistic ssances. Between age 20 and 46 Kluski focused mostly on his career and family, and lost interest in Spirits and mediumship. However, in late 1918 he attended a seance by the polish medium Guzik, along with some friends. Following the séance and Guzik’s departure, the sitters wondered if they could nevertheless continue, and see if any phenomena would be produced. As it turned out, a number of phenomena did occur, including luminous forms, which seemed to focus on Kluski’s presence. While he at first refused to accept responsibility for the phenomena observed (he actually had a strong dispute with his friends over this), in subsequent sessions the phenomena returned, and he eventually accepted to work with researchers of the Polish SPR. This work was interrupted in the summer and autumn of 1920, when Kluski went to fight as a volunteer against the Bolsheviks who were attacking Warsaw. Following this, and despite his fragile physical condition, he decided to accept an invitation by Dr. Geley to come to Paris for several months. Richet and Geley were particularly interested in the Polish Medium, not only because of the strength of effects he reportedly produced, but also because of his approach. : Kluski was entirely cooperative with researchers, remained motionless during seances, and, unlike most Physical Mediums, seemed truly discrete and modest about his talents, shying away from publicity and eschewing any form of compensation, monetary or otherwise.
THE IMI SESSIONS : GENERAL SETTING AND PROTOCOL
IMI director Gustave Geley participated in many sessions with Kluski in Warsaw. Here, however, here I will be focusing mostly on the 14 sessions held in Paris, between November and December 1920. The Medium’s poor health and fatigue apparently precluded a more sustained pace of experimentation, and frequent interruptions were necessary during the sessions themselves to check his physical state.
Sessions were held in the IMI laboratory, a 9-meters long by 5-meters wide room (Figure 1). The windowless lab had two doors, one leading to a hallway, the other to a court. Both doors were systematically locked from the inside once the Medium and sitters entered the room. The Medium had no access to the laboratory other than during the actual sessions. Besides Kluski and Dr. Geley, several observers were present, including Professor Richet, Mrs. Geley, the Count de Gramont, Camille Flammarion, Mrs. Flammarion, and the Count Jules Potocki.
Contrary with other Mediums (like Eva C. who was completely stripped and searched), the experimenters judged unnecessary to physically search Kluski. Geley did note that the medium always wore tight-fitting clothing, and that he would spontaneously empty his pockets upon arrival at the lab. Also, both prior to and following the sessions, Dr. Geley would conduct medical examinations on the Medium, and discretely use this opportunity to check for any suspicious objects.
Mediums typically used a dark cabinet to isolate themselves from the light and surroundings and go into a deep trance. Needless to say, this cabinet was often a prime suspect for concealed props. In Kluski’s case the cabinet was present, but it had mostly a symbolic function : the Medium was seated just in front of it, and the cabinet’s curtains generally remained wide open, throughout the session.
Sessions could last an hour or two, with 15-20 minute breaks every half hour or so, generally at the request of the Medium. The sessions took place in low red light, which was sufficient to distinguish the outlines of those present. All sitters locked hands during the sessions. The experimenters were very much conscious of the hand-substitution trick, and were specifically vigilant about any such attempt. Typically, Kluski’s hands (and not just the wrists) would be held by Dr. Geley on one side, and Charles Richet or Count de Gramont on the other. The experimenters also maintained permanent leg contact with the Medium. All contacts were verified before the light was dimmed. Once the session had begun, the controllers would give frequent reports, checking and verbally confirming their certitude that they are holding one of Kluski’s hands.
It must be emphasized that the Medium himself remained essentially immobile throughout the seance except occasionally, when the Medium, in trance, would lean his head on the shoulder of one of his neighbours. Indeed, Geley notes that movements tended to interrupt the phenomena, and that the most impressive events occurred when Kluski was completely still, in deep trance.
RESULTS I : LIGHTS, ODOURS, AND TOUCHES
The sessions yielded numerous reports of apparently paranormal phenomena involving a vaporous ectoplasmic substance which gave birth to visual, tactile and kinetic anomalies. As my focus here is on the wax moulds, described in the next section. I will mention these phenomena only briefly, citing Dr. Geley’s description of a typical séance. “First a strong odour of ozone is perceptible. This odour, analogous to that perceived in radioscopic practrice, is very characteristic... This premonitory symptom has never been absent in our experiments. The smell of ozone comes and goes suddenly. Then, in weak light, slightly phosphorescent vapour floats around the Medium, especially above his head, like light smoke, and in it there are gleams like foci of condensation. These lights were usually many, tenuous, and ephemeral, but sometimes they were larger and more lasting, and then gave the impression of being luminous parts of organs otherwise invisible, especially finger ends or parts of faces. When materialization was complete, fully formed hands and faces could be seen. These hands and faces were often self-luminous.” (Geley, 1927, p.213).
The lights, which, upon observation seemed to be the tips of fingers, i.e., the visible parts of ectoplasmic hands, would often descend upon the sitters and caress them with a touch that was warm, giving the sense of a living hand. As Charles Richet describes, they were “very light touches, like those of a child or very young girl”. The touches were felt by those in proximity of the Medium, and also those further away. They corresponded in time and location to the visual experience of the others observing. For example, Geley mentions : “I was holding Franek’s left hand and Count Potock his right, the control being perfect. Among other important phenomena which will be described in their place, I saw a hand at the end of an arm form under my eyes, cross the Circle in front of Mr. Kluski and touch Mme. Geley, who was facing me.... Immediately after the contact felt by Mme. Geley the hand disappeared.” (Geley, 1927, p.218).
In sum, the observations during the sessions were coherent with past reports on Kluski’s and others’ Physical Mediumship, which claimed that the ‘ectoplasm’ frequently evolved into well defined facial features, or into hands that could move objects or touch participants. Geley gives a number of arguments against trickery for these phenomena. Insofar as, Kluski was alone (there was never any confederate in the sessions), the only possibility would be for the Medium to have liberated a hand to create the effects. Apart from the fact that there were continuous checks of both his hands, and that the Medium was totally motionless throughout the sessions, at least two arguments militate against this hypothesis
a. The lights were often numerous, and moved well beyond arm’s length from Kluski ; they did not just move up and then fall down, but moved laterally across the room with apparent goal-directedness, to touch different participants. The touches were also felt by two individuals at once, including the sitters most distant from Kluski
b. The visual phenomena did not amount to simple light projections, but involved complex constructions which visually evolved over time ; furthermore, there was good agreement between sitters in terms of the details as to what was seen, and these corresponded in time with other sensory phenomena, such as touches. This renders unlikely any hypothesis based on trance-induced hallucinations
RESULTS II : THE WAX MOULDS
The IMI researchers’ true objective was to go beyond visual or tactile experiences, which, even if consensual, could be later construed as a collective hallucination of sorts. What they were really looking for was unambiguous and permanent evidence of ectoplasm - something akin to a Permanent Paranormal Object (PPO). In order to obtain a PPO, they opted for a method initially developed in 1875 by William Denton, an American geologist (Aksakof, 1906), who proposed using a bowl filled with hot wax to obtain instant moulds of purported materializations. A second bowl with cold water was used to quickly solidify the wax moulds, and finally, plaster of Paris was poured into the wax moulds to create a more sturdy object.
The system used at the IMI involved a circular tank 30 centimeters in diameter, containing several kilograms of wax that floated on electrically heated water, thus producing a 10-cm deep layer of liquid wax. The system was placed on a table, in the center of the Circle formed by the sitters, 60 centimeters in front of the Medium. Rather than using a second bowl for cooling, the IMI researchers preferred to allow the wax moulds to rigidify on their own, this being, as we shall see, a precaution against fraud. Following the sessions, the investigators would pour plaster into the fragile wax moulds, to obtain a more permanent object ; once the plaster hardened, they would simply plunge the ensemble into boiling water and strip away the wax layer.
Kluski’s task, then, was to not only to produce the ectoplasmic forms or entities, but to also induce these to plunge an ‘ectoplasmic limb’ into the liquid paraffin, withdraw into the air to allow the wax to solidify around it, re-plunge to create a new layer, come out again, and finally deposit the resulting form next to the researchers and dissolve, leaving behind a thin wax glove that reproduced the original form.
While the olfactory, visual and tactile phenomena came soon after sessions began, it generally took 15 to 20 minutes before any sign appeared that a mould was in the process of forming. The experimenters would first hear the sound of the ‘hand’ dipping into the paraffin, and then feel it touch their own hands, moist with warm wax. It would then be heard dipping in the container again, and finally come out and deposit itself next to them. Once begun, this whole process would evolve quite rapidly - within 1 to 2 minutes. As Geley remarked this was quite surprising, given that paraffin’s normal time to solidify at room temperature is much longer. Kluski once told Geley that the ‘entities’ can control their temperature and accelerate the setting of the wax. Whether or not this is so, Geley did often note that, during the sessions, Kluski’s hands would suddenly get quite cold.
Here is a brief description of two IMI sessions with Kluski :
December 27th session
Just prior to beginning, Richet and Geley had secretly added a bluish colouring agent to the paraffin. Control of the medium was considered excellent, with controllers regularly checking and verbally reporting ‘I am holding the right hand’, ‘I am holding the left hand’. Splashing sounds were heard about twenty minutes into the session, and one to two minutes later two warm paraffin gloves were deposited next to the controllers. Both wax moulds had precisely the same bluish tint as that of the tank, strongly suggesting that these were indeed created during the seance, and not smuggled in by the Medium. An additional control was the weighing of all substance. Prior to the experiment, the paraffin was 3.920 grams, while at the end of the session it weighed 3.800 grams. The two moulds weighed 50 grams, and there was considerable wax scattered near the Medium (around 15 grams), on his clothing, and on the floor 3.5 meters away from him (about 25 grams). Insofar as the sum of these weights correspond very closely to the initial weight, this further establishes that the wax gloves were produced during the session. Finally, it should be mentioned that the wax moulds were less than a millimeter thick (thinner than a sheet of paper).
December 31st session.
Following recommendations of psychical researcher and illusionist Robert Toquet, Geley added a second substance to the paraffin mix : cholesterol. This was done immediately prior to the beginning of the session, in total secrecy. Cholesterol is completely colorless, but when it interacts with sulfuric acid it produces a characteristic reddish color which then turns brown ; by contrast, sulfuric acid added to plain wax yields no colour changes. Following a rather unsuccessful first period and pause, the session resumed, with controllers regularly checking and declaring their hold on Kluski. The first sounds of spashing were heard, and paraffin was scattered on Richet, Count Potocki and Geley. The lights were quickly turned up and two moulds were found on the table, that of a child-sized foot (Figure 2), and that of a lower part of an adult face. These had the same bluish hue as the paraffin mix. Additionally, immediately following the session, Geley took samples from the foot mould, and added the sulfuric acid : the characteristic colour shift was positive. This was the ‘acid test’, literally and metaphorically, establishing that the moulds were definitely produced during the session, from the researchers’ own paraffin and container.
All in all, 9 moulds were obtained over the course of 11 sessions. These included seven child-sized hand moulds, one child-sized foot mould and one adult-sized mould of a chin and mouth. Interestingly enough, although the hand moulds were small, they displayed the markings typical of adult living hands. Also important, there were some variations in size : the 3rd one, as Geley notes, is more than a centimeter longer than the 6th one. Kluski stated that he consistently obtains smaller moulds when he is tired or ill. In the later Warsaw sessions, attended by Dr. Geley, Kluski was much more vigorous and healthy, and the moulds obtained were indeed of normal adult size.
The Warsaw Sessions
Geley participated in a number of sessions in Warsaw, the next year. I will refer to these only briefly, for the sake of completeness. The sessions in Warsaw were conducted in Kluski’s home, which, of course, renders them less evidential than those at the IMI laboratory. Nevertheless, Kluski was again highly cooperative. Researchers thoroughly checked the room prior to commencing the session, locked the door, and maintained the usual hand controls (Geley himself always controlled one of Kluski’s hands). These sessions were highly successful, and showed a few striking elements that deserve note.
As mentioned already, most of the hand-moulds obtained were of normal adult size, and showed extremely fine detail (for example, see Figure 5).
Some of the wax gloves were even thinner than those at the Institute, i.e., less than a millimeter thick. As Geley points out, these had to be produced with just a single, very rapid ‘dip’ into the paraffin, the entire operation lasting less than a minute.
Several of the Warsaw moulds involved two interlocked hands, rather than a single hand (Figure 6) ; this, as we shall see, is significant in view of a fraud hypothesis.
Finally, in one session the researchers actually saw the production of the wax moulds. In other words, they witnessed a continuity between the visual apparitions of luminous hands and the creation of the moulds. As Geley describes it :
We had the great pleasure of seeing the hands dipping into the paraffin. They were luminous, bearing points of light at the finger-tips. They passed slowly before our eyes, dipped into the wax, moved in it for a few seconds, came out, still luminous, and deposited the glove against the hand of one of us. (Geley, 1927, p.234)
There are two conceivable means for fraudulently producing the wax gloves. Either they were made by sleight of hand during the sessions, or they were produced ahead of time and smuggled into the IMI laboratory. I will now examine these two hypotheses.
Fraudulent production of the moulds during the sessions.
It is quite obvious that Kluski could not fraudulently produce the moulds with his own hands during session. Leaving aside the accentuated vigilance of the controllers, and the fact that he remained totally immobile, the moulds obtained were visibly distinct from his own in every way, starting with the size : as mentioned, the wax moulds were child-sized. Kluski was not a midget, and there were no midgets attending the IMI sessions. As if it were necessary, Geley sent some moulds and Kluski’s fingerprints to the Criminal Identification Department of Paris and obtained a written statement from the Head of the department that the two did not match. Also annoying, in the context of a fraud hypothesis, is the small foot mould ; we would be rather hard pressed to imagine how Kluski (or anyone else, for that matter) would manage to repeatedly dip his foot in the wax, free it from the fragile wax mould, and then tie his shoes back on, without being noticed.
Could the moulds have been created using a prefabricated inflatable cast (e.g., made of rubber), which could be quickly withdrawn once the wax mould is formed ? This seems highly implausible. The Kluski moulds exhibit extremely fine detail, from palm lines to nails to fingerprints. Every professional that was interrogated stated that these moulds were first-generation, and definitely derived from a human hand - indeed a living hand, and not that of a corpse. Also, rubber and similar substances are not rigid, and would serve poorly as temporary casts for the hot wax. Indeed, simulations done at the IMI, to reproduce wax moulds out of rubber supports yielded rather pitiful results (figure 3).
What about the use of a prefabricated rigid cast, made from a human hand ? As mentioned, the wax moulds were exceptionally delicate : at most a millimeter thick. They were also totally seamless, i.e., without any evidence of having been put together from independent parts. Earlier researchers (e.g., Aksakof, 1906) had claimed that such moulds are in and of themselves impossible to reproduce through mechanical means - hence their claimed status as PPOs. In fact, the IMI researchers did succeed in producing apparently seemless wax moulds in the laboratory, by plunging a hand mould into warm wax, allowing the wax mould to cool, using a very fine razor to open it and extract the rigid hand cast, then joining the two halves of the mould and replunging them into warm wax to conceal the split and seal them together. This long process only succeeded when the wax moulds were 3 to 4 times thicker than the moulds obtained during the sessions ; otherwise, the mould would break into pieces as soon as they tried to cut it. So, could Kluski have used a hidden rigid cast to produce the wax in real time, during the session ? The IMI simulations suggest how difficult that would have been : Kluski would have had to free his hands, bring out the concealed prefabricated hand mould, dip it into the hot wax, allow time for the wax to cool off sufficiently to create a cast, split open the wax moulds to pull out the prefabricated cast, join the halves, dip them in the paraffin again to conceal the seam, and finally deposit the wax mould on the table. All this, of course, within 1 to 2 minutes, and without once, over the course of 11 successful sessions, being noticed by either of the controllers holding his hands.
A simpler alternative would have been to use a prefabricated soluble cast (e.g., made of sugar). It would considerably lighten the burden of the cheating Medium if the original cast could just disappear without a trace. But for this to work, Kluski would need to dip the original cast along with the dripping wax moulds into a bowl of cold water (or some other solvant). As mentioned, the IMI researchers explicitly decided against using the cold water bowl as a precaution against this possibility.
It seems obvious to me that any real-time scenario amounts to accusing the controllers or others present as part of the fraud. This collusion would have to involve at least two of the sitters, as the perpetrator would have had to ‘break’ the Circle in order to free his or her two hands. In the Warsaw sessions that produced double-hand moulds, sleight of hand would have actually necessitated the collusion of three individuals.
One final detail argues against the idea that the moulds were mechanically produced during the sessions. In all subsequent simulations at the IMI, the cooling of the wax moulds took 15 to 20 minutes in the air, and 7 to 8 minutes with the aid of a bowl of cold water. During the Kluski sessions, the entire process, from start to end, took 2 minutes.
I believe that the hypothesis that the moulds were fraudulently created during the session can be safely rejected.
Production of the moulds prior to the sessions
That leaves the second hypothesis : that the wax moulds themselves (and not just a cast) were created in advance, smuggled into the laboratory, and simply posed on the table without being noticed. It is clear that the the Medium would have faced considerable difficulties in smuggling extremely fragile objects into the IMI laboratory, and pulling them out of his ‘tight fitting clothing’ without being noticed. How he would successfully do this over the course of 11 sessions seems still more mind boggling. But such considerations are really not necessary to refute the fraud-hypothesis here. Based upon the use of the colouring agents and the cholesterol, there is no doubt that at least three of the wax moulds (those for which the hidden controls were introduced) came from the researchers’ own wax. There is no reason to suspect that it was otherwise for the rest of the moulds. Once again, it appears that the only possible means for rejecting the materialization hypothesis, is to suppose that the researchers themselves had been part of a conspiracy to create convincing moulds. Interestingly enough none of those who have attempted to cast doubt on the authenticity of the Kluski moulds (e.g., Coleman, 1994 ; Polidoro and Garaschelli, 1997) have even tried to accuse Geley, Richet, and others of fraud. This is a pity, because their attempted counter-explanations are quite weak, and work only by ignoring or misrepresenting substantial parts of Geley’s account (see Barrington, 1994 ; Fontana, 1998).
Can the Kluski moulds thus be considered to be true PPOs ? If by this we mean an ‘impossible’ object, one which in and of itself constitutes irrefutable evidence for a paranormally created object, the answer is clearly negative. Although Geley had initially hoped to obtain objects impossible to produce through mechanical means, he went to great lengths to falsify his own expectations, and indeed was able to artificially produce analogous wax moulds in his lab (though, as mentioned these never approached the extremely delicate Kluski moulds).
The evidential value of the moulds thus depends upon the conditions in which they were produced. Geley cogently argued that the experimental controls and precautions employed during the IMI sessions conclusively demonstrate the paranormal origin of these objects. Eighty years later, I believe his conclusion still holds.
Aksakof, A. (1906). Animisme et Spiritisme : Essai d’un examen critique des phenomenes mediumniques. Ed. Paul Leymaire : Paris
Barrington, M.R. (1994). The Kluski hands. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 59, 347-351.
Coleman, M.H. (1994). Wax moulds of ‘spirit’ limbs. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 59, 340-346.
Fontana, D. (1998). Spirit Moulds : observations on Kluski and his critics. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 63, 43-45.
Geley, G. (1927). Clairvoyance and Materialization : A Record of Experiments. T.Fisher Unwin Limited : London
Polidoro and Garaschelli (1997). Spirit moulds : a practical experiment. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 62, 58-63.
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